Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

Droplet sizes emitted from demonstration electric toothbrushes

Mark, Erwin P., Lewis, Michael A.O., Graziani, Filippo, Atlas, Boris and Utsch, Joern 2021. Droplet sizes emitted from demonstration electric toothbrushes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18 (5) , 2320. 10.3390/ijerph18052320

[img] PDF - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (2MB)


The COVID-19 pandemic has drawn attention to microbial transmission risk via aerosols in dental practice. Demonstration electric toothbrushes are used intra-orally for education. The aim of this investigation was to measure the size of droplets emitted by the brush head of two demonstration oscillating-rotating electric toothbrushes. Measurement of droplet production and size was recorded in vitro using three methods: (1) Malvern Spraytec (LASER particle size measurement device with detectable particle size of 0.1–2500 µm) and brushes mounted on a 3D-printed, two-shell form-fit fixture with a supply of tap water; (2) a DustTrak aerosol measurement device and toothpaste slurry, with brushing simulated in the oral cavity of a phantom head; (3) high-speed visualization in a simulated-use situation in the oral cavity of a phantom head, with individual evaluation of tap water, water with detergent, 70% ethanol, glycerin and toothpaste slurry. Both brushes showed the size of emitted droplets was consistently between 200 and 1200 µm, categorized as splatter (dental aerosols are <50 µm diameter). No significant incremental aerosol-sized matter was detected during toothbrush operation. The high-speed video visualization confirmed only splatter-sized droplets during operation. These findings indicate that oscillating-rotating toothbrushes do not produce aerosol-sized particles during simulated use.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Dentistry
Additional Information: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Publisher: MDPI
ISSN: 1660-4601
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 27 July 2021
Date of Acceptance: 22 February 2021
Last Modified: 02 Aug 2021 12:41

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics