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Hardness of domestic water and blood lead levels

Elwood, Peter Creighton, Phillips, K. M., Lowe, N., Phillips, J. K. and Toothill, C. 1983. Hardness of domestic water and blood lead levels. Human & Experimental Toxicology 2 (4) , pp. 645-648. 10.1177/096032718300200411

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1 The effect on the blood lead levels of residents in an area in which a soft plumbo-solvent water was hardened is examined. 2 Water lead levels fell after hardening was introduced whereas there was a small rise in water lead levels in a control area monitored over the same time. 3 The blood lead levels of residents fell after hardening and the fall was slightly greater than would have been predicted on the basis of the change in water lead levels. This suggests that lead is less well absorbed from hard water than from soft water. 4 Following hardening there was a significant fall in mean blood lead level of subjects living in houses which had initially had negligible amounts of lead in the water. This suggests that hard water may interfere with the absorption of lead from sources other than water.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
ISSN: 0960-3271
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 08:03

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