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Probiotics for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Cheema, Huzaifa Ahmad, Shahid, Abia, Ayyan, Muhammad, Mustafa, Biah, Zahid, Afra, Fatima, Maurish, Ehsan, Muhammad, Athar, Farwa, Duric, Natalie and Szakmany, Tamas 2022. Probiotics for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Nutrients 14 (8) , 1600. 10.3390/nu14081600

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Abstract

Background: Presently, there is conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of probiotics in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). This meta-analysis was conducted to update current clinical evidence and evaluate the efficacy and safety of probiotics for the prevention of VAP. Methods: We searched three databases and two trial registers to retrieve randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics or synbiotics with placebo or standard treatment for the prevention of VAP in adult patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU). Results: Our meta-analysis included 18 RCTs involving 4893 patients. Our results showed that probiotics may reduce the incidence of VAP (RR 0.68, 95% CI: 0.55–0.84; low certainty). However, in our subgroup and sensitivity analyses, the effect was not significant in double-blind studies, and in studies with a low risk of bias in the randomisation process. Probiotics reduced the length of ICU stay (MD −2.22 days, 95% CI: −4.17 to −0.28; moderate certainty) and the duration of antibiotic use (MD −1.25 days, 95% CI −1.86 to −0.64; moderate certainty). Conclusions: Probiotics may reduce the incidence of VAP but due to the low quality of pooled evidence, the use of probiotics warrants caution. Further, large-scale, high-quality RCTs need to be conducted to provide conclusive evidence.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Additional Information: This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/)
Publisher: MDPI
ISSN: 2072-6643
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 20 May 2022
Date of Acceptance: 10 April 2022
Last Modified: 26 May 2022 13:00
URI: https://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/149912

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