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The role of punicalagin and its metabolites in atherosclerosis and risk factors associated with the disease

Alalawi, Sulaiman, Albalawi, Faizah and Ramji, Dipak P. ORCID: 2023. The role of punicalagin and its metabolites in atherosclerosis and risk factors associated with the disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 24 (10) , 8476. 10.3390/ijms24108476

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Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Although current therapies, such as statins, have led to a marked reduction in morbidity and mortality from ACVD, they are associated with considerable residual risk for the disease together with various adverse side effects. Natural compounds are generally well-tolerated; a major recent goal has been to harness their full potential in the prevention and treatment of ACVD, either alone or together with existing pharmacotherapies. Punicalagin (PC) is the main polyphenol present in pomegranates and pomegranate juice and demonstrates many beneficial actions, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-atherogenic properties. The objective of this review is to inform on our current understanding of the pathogenesis of ACVD and the potential mechanisms underlying the beneficial actions of PC and its metabolites in the disease, including the attenuation of dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, endothelial cell dysfunction, foam cell formation, and inflammation mediated by cytokines and immune cells together with the regulation of proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. Some of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of PC and its metabolites are due to their strong radical-scavenging activities. PC and its metabolites also inhibit the risk factors of atherosclerosis, including hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, inflammation, hypertension, obesity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Despite the promising findings that have emerged from numerous in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies, deeper mechanistic insights and large clinical trials are required to harness the full potential of PC and its metabolites in the prevention and treatment of ACVD.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Publisher: MDPI
ISSN: 1422-0067
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 12 May 2023
Date of Acceptance: 3 May 2023
Last Modified: 13 May 2023 06:51

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