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Monte Carlo simulation and patient dosimetry for a kilovoltage cone-beam CT unit

Downes, P., Jarvis, R., Radu, E., Kawrakow, I. and Spezi, Emiliano 2009. Monte Carlo simulation and patient dosimetry for a kilovoltage cone-beam CT unit. Medical Physics 36 (9) , pp. 4156-4167.

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this work is to characterize the x-ray volume imager (XVI), the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) unit mounted on the Elekta Synergy linac, with F1 bowtie filter and to calculate the three-dimensional dose delivered to patients using volumetric acquisition. METHODS: The XVI is modeled in detail using a new Monte Carlo (MC) code, BEAMPP, under development at the National Research Council Canada. In this investigation, a new component module is developed to accurately model the unit's bowtie filter used in conjunction with the available beam collimators at the clinical energy of 120 kV. The modeling is compared against percentage depth dose (PDD) and profile measurements. Kilovoltage radiation beams' phase space files are also analyzed. The authors also describe a method for the absolute dose calibration of the MC model of the CBCT unit when used in a clinical volumetric acquisition mode. Finally, they calculate three-dimensional patient dose from CBCT image acquisition in three clinical cases of interest: Pelvis, lung, and head and neck. RESULTS: The agreement between measurement and MC is shown to be very good: Within +/- 2% for the PDD and within +/- 3.5% inside the radiation field for all the collimators with the F1 bowtie filter. A full account of the absolute calibration method is given and dose calculation is validated against ion chamber measurements in different locations of a plastic phantom. Calculations and experiments agree within +/- 2% or better in both at the center and the periphery of the phantom, with worst agreement of 4.5% at the surface of the phantom and for one specific combination of collimator and filter. Patient dose from CBCT scan reveals that dose to tissue is between 2 and 2.5 cGy for a pelvis or a lung full acquisition. For H&N dose to tissue is 5 cGy, with the unit presets used in this work. Dose to bony structures can be two to three times higher than dose to tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The XVI CBCT unit has been fully modeled including the F1 bowtie filter. Absolute dose distribution from the unit has been successfully validated. Full MC patient dose calculation has shown that the three-dimensional dose distribution from CBCT is complex. Patient dose from CBCT exposure cannot be completely accounted for by using a numerical factor as an estimate of the dose at the center of the body. Furthermore, additional dose to bone should be taken into account when adopting any IGRT strategy and weighed vs the unquestionable benefits of the technique in order to optimize treatment. Full three-dimensional dose calculation is recommended if patient dose from CBCT is to be integrated in any adaptive planning strategy.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Engineering
Subjects: Q Science > QC Physics
R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Publisher: American Association of Physicists in Medicine
ISSN: 0094-2405
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Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 08:05

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