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De novo CCND2 mutations leading to stabilization of cyclin D2 cause megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome

Mirzaa, Ghayda M., Parry, David A., Fry, Andrew E., Giamanco, Kristin A., Schwartzentruber, Jeremy, Vanstone, Megan, Logan, Clare V., Roberts, Nicola, Johnson, Colin A., Singh, Shawn, Kholmanskikh, Stanislav S., Adams, Carissa, Hodge, Rebecca D., Hevner, Robert F., Bonthron, David T., Braun, Kees P. J., Faivre, Laurence, Rivière, Jean-Baptiste, St-Onge, Judith, Gripp, Karen W., Mancini, Grazia M. S., Pang, Ki, Sweeney, Elizabeth, van Esch, Hilde, Verbeek, Nienke, Wieczorek, Dagmar, Steinraths, Michelle, Majewski, Jacek, Boycott, Kym M., Pilz, Daniela T., Ross, M. Elizabeth, Dobyns, William B. and Sheridan, Eamonn G. 2014. De novo CCND2 mutations leading to stabilization of cyclin D2 cause megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome. Nature Genetics 46 , pp. 510-515. 10.1038/ng.2948

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Activating mutations in genes encoding phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway components cause megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome (MPPH, OMIM 603387)1,2,3. Here we report that individuals with MPPH lacking upstream PI3K-AKT pathway mutations carry de novo mutations in CCND2 (encoding cyclin D2) that are clustered around a residue that can be phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β)4. Mutant CCND2 was resistant to proteasomal degradation in vitro compared to wild-type CCND2. The PI3K-AKT pathway modulates GSK-3β activity4, and cells from individuals with PIK3CA, PIK3R2 or AKT3 mutations showed similar CCND2 accumulation. CCND2 was expressed at higher levels in brains of mouse embryos expressing activated AKT3. In utero electroporation of mutant CCND2 into embryonic mouse brains produced more proliferating transfected progenitors and a smaller fraction of progenitors exiting the cell cycle compared to cells electroporated with wild-type CCND2. These observations suggest that cyclin D2 stabilization, caused by CCND2 mutation or PI3K-AKT activation, is a unifying mechanism in PI3K-AKT–related megalencephaly syndromes.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Publisher: Nature
ISSN: 1061-4036
Funders: The Baily Thomas Charitable Fund
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 29 November 2017
Date of Acceptance: 12 March 2014
Last Modified: 18 Jan 2021 14:15

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