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Insulin resistance and obesity, and their association with depression in relatively young people: findings from a large U.K. birth cohort

Perry, Benjamin, Khandaker, Golam, Thompson, Andrew, Marwaha, Steven, Zammit, Stanley, Singh, Swaran and Upthegrove, Rachel 2020. Insulin resistance and obesity, and their association with depression in relatively young people: findings from a large U.K. birth cohort. Psychological Medicine 50 (4) , pp. 556-565. 10.1017/S0033291719000308

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Background Depression frequently co-occurs with disorders of glucose and insulin homeostasis (DGIH) and obesity. Low-grade systemic inflammation and lifestyle factors in childhood may predispose to DGIH, obesity and depression. We aim to investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations among DGIH, obesity and depression, and to examine the effect of demographics, lifestyle factors and antecedent low-grade inflammation on such associations in young people. Methods Using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort, we used regression analyses to examine: (1) cross-sectional and (2) longitudinal associations between measures of DGIH [insulin resistance (IR); impaired glucose tolerance] and body mass index (BMI) at ages 9 and 18 years, and depression (depressive symptoms and depressive episode) at age 18 years and (3) whether sociodemographics, lifestyle factors or inflammation [interleukin-6 (IL-6) at age 9 years] confounded any such associations. Results We included 3208 participants. At age 18 years, IR and BMI were positively associated with depression. These associations may be explained by sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. There were no longitudinal associations between DGIH/BMI and depression, and adjustment for IL-6 and C-reactive protein did not attenuate associations between IR/BMI and depression; however, the longitudinal analyses may have been underpowered. Conclusions Young people with depression show evidence of DGIH and raised BMI, which may be related to sociodemographic and lifestyle effects such as deprivation, smoking, ethnicity and gender. In future, studies with larger samples are required to confirm this. Preventative strategies for the poorer physical health outcomes associated with depression should focus on malleable lifestyle factors.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)
ISSN: 0033-2917
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 14 February 2019
Date of Acceptance: 5 February 2019
Last Modified: 22 Apr 2020 12:17

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