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Interleukin-5 drives glycolysis and reactive oxygen species-dependent citric acid cycling by eosinophils

Jones, Nicholas, Vincent, Emma E., Felix, Lindsey C., Cronin, James G., Scott, Louis M., Hole, Paul S., Lacy, Paige and Thornton, Catherine A. 2020. Interleukin-5 drives glycolysis and reactive oxygen species-dependent citric acid cycling by eosinophils. Allergy 75 (6) , pp. 1361-1370. 10.1111/all.14158

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Introduction Eosinophils have been long implicated in antiparasite immunity and allergic diseases and, more recently, in regulating adipose tissue homeostasis. The metabolic processes that govern eosinophils, particularly upon activation, are unknown. Methods Peripheral blood eosinophils were isolated for the analysis of metabolic processes using extracellular flux analysis and individual metabolites by stable isotope tracer analysis coupled to gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry following treatment with IL‐3, IL‐5 or granulocyte‐macrophage colony‐stimulating factor (GM‐CSF). Eosinophil metabolism was elucidated using pharmacological inhibitors. Results Human eosinophils engage a largely glycolytic metabolism but also employ mitochondrial metabolism. Cytokine stimulation generates citric acid cycle (TCA) intermediates from both glucose and glutamine revealing this previously unknown role for mitochondria upon eosinophil activation. We further show that the metabolic programme driven by IL‐5 is dependent on the STAT5/PI3K/Akt signalling axis and that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX)‐dependent ROS production might be a driver of mitochondrial metabolism upon eosinophil activation. Conclusion We demonstrate for the first time that eosinophils are capable of metabolic plasticity, evidenced by increased glucose‐derived lactate production upon ROS inhibition. Collectively, this study reveals a role for both glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism in cytokine‐stimulated eosinophils. Selective targeting of eosinophil metabolism may be of therapeutic benefit in eosinophil‐mediated diseases and regulation of tissue homeostasis.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Publisher: Wiley
ISSN: 0105-4538
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 6 February 2020
Date of Acceptance: 25 November 2019
Last Modified: 20 Jan 2021 16:29

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