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The MBHBM Project-I: measurement of the central black hole mass in spiral galaxy NGC 3504 using molecular gas kinematics

Nguyen, Dieu D., Brok, Mark den, Seth, Anil C., Davis, Timothy A., Greene, Jenny E., Cappellari, Michelle, Jensen, Joseph B., Thater, Sabine, Iguchi, Satoru, Imanishi, Masatoshi, Izumi, Takuma, Nyland, Kristina, Neumayer, Nadine, Nakanishi, Kouichiro, Nguyen, Phuong M., Tsukui, Takafumi, Bureau, Martin, Onishi, Kyoko, Nguyen, Quang L. and M. Le, Ngan 2020. The MBHBM Project-I: measurement of the central black hole mass in spiral galaxy NGC 3504 using molecular gas kinematics. Astrophysical Journal 892 (1) , 68. 10.3847/1538-4357/ab77aa

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Abstract

We present a dynamical mass measurement of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby double-barred spiral galaxy NGC 3504 as part of the Measuring Black Holes in below Milky Way (M sstarf) Mass Galaxies Project. Our analysis is based on Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array cycle 5 observations of the ${}^{12}\mathrm{CO}(2-1)$ emission line. These observations probe NGC 3504's circumnuclear gas disk (CND). Our dynamical model of the CND simultaneously constrains a black hole (BH) mass of ${1.6}_{-0.4}^{+0.6}\times {10}^{7}$ M ⊙, which is consistent with the empirical BH–galaxy scaling relations and a mass-to-light ratio in the H band of 0.44 ± 0.12 (M ⊙/${L}_{\odot }$). This measurement also relies on our new estimation of the distance to the galaxy of 32.4 ± 2.1 Mpc using the surface brightness fluctuation method, which is much further than the existing distance estimates. Additionally, our observations detect a central deficit in the ${}^{12}\mathrm{CO}(2-1)$ integrated intensity map with a diameter of 6.3 pc at the putative position of the SMBH. However, we find that a dense gas tracer CS(5 − 4) peaks at the galaxy center, filling in the 12CO(2 − 1)-attenuated hole. Holes like this one are observed in other galaxies, and our observations suggest these may be caused by changing excitation conditions rather than a true absence of molecular gas around the nucleus.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Physics and Astronomy
Publisher: American Astronomical Society
ISSN: 0004-637X
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 19 February 2020
Date of Acceptance: 17 February 2020
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2021 09:41
URI: http://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/129840

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