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Aggrecan, the primary weight-bearing cartilage proteoglycan, has context-dependent, cell-directive properties in embryonic development and neurogenesis: aggrecan glycan side chain modifications convey interactive biodiversity

Hayes, Anthony J and Melrose, James 2020. Aggrecan, the primary weight-bearing cartilage proteoglycan, has context-dependent, cell-directive properties in embryonic development and neurogenesis: aggrecan glycan side chain modifications convey interactive biodiversity. Biomolecules 10 (9) , 1244. 10.3390/biom10091244

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Abstract

This review examines aggrecan’s roles in developmental embryonic tissues, in tissues undergoing morphogenetic transition and in mature weight-bearing tissues. Aggrecan is a remarkably versatile and capable proteoglycan (PG) with diverse tissue context-dependent functional attributes beyond its established role as a weight-bearing PG. The aggrecan core protein provides a template which can be variably decorated with a number of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains including keratan sulphate (KS), human natural killer trisaccharide (HNK-1) and chondroitin sulphate (CS). These convey unique tissue-specific functional properties in water imbibition, space-filling, matrix stabilisation or embryonic cellular regulation. Aggrecan also interacts with morphogens and growth factors directing tissue morphogenesis, remodelling and metaplasia. HNK-1 aggrecan glycoforms direct neural crest cell migration in embryonic development and is neuroprotective in perineuronal nets in the brain. The ability of the aggrecan core protein to assemble CS and KS chains at high density equips cartilage aggrecan with its well-known water-imbibing and weight-bearing properties. The importance of specific arrangements of GAG chains on aggrecan in all its forms is also a primary morphogenetic functional determinant providing aggrecan with unique tissue context dependent regulatory properties. The versatility displayed by aggrecan in biodiverse contexts is a function of its GAG side chains. View Full-Text Keywords: aggrecan; tissue morphogenesis; HNK-1 trisaccharide; glycosaminoglycan; cellular regulation; extracellular matrix

Item Type: Article
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Additional Information: This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Publisher: MDPI
ISSN: 2218-273X
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 October 2020
Date of Acceptance: 23 August 2020
Last Modified: 02 Nov 2020 09:45
URI: http://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/136063

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