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Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards interlaboratory study on intensity calibration for x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy instruments using low-density polyethylene

Reed, Benjamen P., Cant, David J. H., Spencer, Steve J., Carmona-Carmona, Abraham Jorge, Bushell, Adam, Herrera-Gómez, Alberto, Kurokawa, Akira, Thissen, Andreas, Thomas, Andrew G., Britton, Andrew J., Bernasik, Andrzej, Fuchs, Anne, Baddorf, Arthur P., Bock, Bernd, Theilacker, Bill, Cheng, Bin, Castner, David G., Morgan, David J., Valley, David, Willneff, Elizabeth A., Smith, Emily F., Nolot, Emmanuel, Xie, Fangyan, Zorn, Gilad, Smith, Graham C., Yasufuku, Hideyuki, Fenton, Jeffery L., Chen, Jian, Counsell, Jonathan D. P., Radnik, Jörg, Gaskell, Karen J., Artyushkova, Kateryna, Yang, Li, Zhang, Lulu, Eguchi, Makiho, Walker, Marc, Hajdyła, Mariusz, Marzec, Mateusz M., Linford, Matthew R., Kubota, Naoyoshi, Cortazar-Martínez, Orlando, Dietrich, Paul, Satoh, Riki, Schroeder, Sven L. M., Avval, Tahereh G., Nagatomi, Takaharu, Fernandez, Vincent, Lake, Wayne, Azuma, Yasushi, Yoshikawa, Yusuke and Shard, Alexander G. 2020. Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards interlaboratory study on intensity calibration for x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy instruments using low-density polyethylene. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A 38 (6) , 063208. 10.1116/6.0000577

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Abstract

We report the results of a Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards interlaboratory study on the intensity scale calibration of x-ray photoelectron spectrometers using low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as an alternative material to gold, silver, and copper. An improved set of LDPE reference spectra, corrected for different instrument geometries using a quartz-monochromated Al Kα x-ray source, was developed using data provided by participants in this study. Using these new reference spectra, a transmission function was calculated for each dataset that participants provided. When compared to a similar calibration procedure using the NPL reference spectra for gold, the LDPE intensity calibration method achieves an absolute offset of ∼3.0% and a systematic deviation of ±6.5% on average across all participants. For spectra recorded at high pass energies (≥90 eV), values of absolute offset and systematic deviation are ∼5.8% and ±5.7%, respectively, whereas for spectra collected at lower pass energies (<90 eV), values of absolute offset and systematic deviation are ∼4.9% and ±8.8%, respectively; low pass energy spectra perform worse than the global average, in terms of systematic deviations, due to diminished count rates and signal-to-noise ratio. Differences in absolute offset are attributed to the surface roughness of the LDPE induced by sample preparation. We further assess the usability of LDPE as a secondary reference material and comment on its performance in the presence of issues such as variable dark noise, x-ray warm up times, inaccuracy at low count rates, and underlying spectrometer problems. In response to participant feedback and the results of the study, we provide an updated LDPE intensity calibration protocol to address the issues highlighted in the interlaboratory study. We also comment on the lack of implementation of a consistent and traceable intensity calibration method across the community of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) users and, therefore, propose a route to achieving this with the assistance of instrument manufacturers, metrology laboratories, and experts leading to an international standard for XPS intensity scale calibration.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Chemistry
Cardiff Catalysis Institute (CCI)
Publisher: AIP Publishing and American Vacuum Society
ISSN: 0734-2101
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 3 December 2020
Date of Acceptance: 30 October 2020
Last Modified: 07 Dec 2020 17:04
URI: http://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/136768

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