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Impact analysis of domestic building energy demand and electric vehicles charging on low voltage distribution networks

Nan, Xiaodan 2019. Impact analysis of domestic building energy demand and electric vehicles charging on low voltage distribution networks. PhD Thesis, Cardiff University.
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Abstract

There are lots of worldwide attentions paid to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which can result in serious climate change issues. Hence, finding ways to save energy and GHG emissions become important. Moreover, the energy demand from the residential sector accounts for around 30% of the total energy demand, which shows that it can be a potential way to contribute to reducing GHG emissions. Furthermore, the electric vehicle (EV) is going to play an important role in reducing GHG emissions, however, with the growth of EVs in the community, the low voltage (LV) distribution network (DN) will be affected directly. Therefore, investigating reducing the energy demand from domestic dwellings and minimising the impacts of EVs charging on dwellings and DNs become significantly important. Firstly, the energy demand of a domestic dwelling is modelled in the EnergyPlus. Potential energy savings from building material, photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels, LED lights and occupants’ behaviours are analysed and improving the energy efficiency is investigated. Then, coupling by EnergyPlus and Matlab through Building Control Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) interface, the Dwelling-EV Integration Model (DEIM) is established as the foundation for impact analysis of EVs charging on the energy demand in the dwellings and DNs. An individual domestic dwelling is modelled. Then load-shifting method and the battery storage energy system (BSES) are used to reduce the peak power demand in the dwelling, which are proved to be feasible and be able to smooth the daily power demand profile. III Further, in order to solve the issues caused by EVs charging, such as voltage drop, power loss etc. on DN, the impacts of EVs charging on the LV DN are analysed based on a typical network, and the concept of dwelling’s micro-grid, consisting of the PV and a battery storage system, is proposed. The dwelling’s micro-grid is used to minimise the impacts of EVs charging, and it is proved to be useful for reducing the voltage drop, the voltage disqualification rate and the power loss. Finally, an ordered charging strategy (OCS) of EVs using the expected power is proposed to minimise unbalanced load and increasing unqualified voltage caused by EVs charging. Additionally, the OCS using the expected power is combined with the BSES to further reduce the impacts. This method not only reduces the capacity of BSES, makes the voltage of DN qualify, but also smoothes the daily power demand. It solves the voltage drop caused by random EVs charging and overcomes the disadvantage of the large deployment of EVs on the DN.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Date Type: Completion
Status: Unpublished
Schools: Engineering
Uncontrolled Keywords: Electric vehicles; Electric vehicles charging impacts; Battery storage; Dwelling’s micro-grid; Electric vehicles charging strategy; Dwelling’s energy demand.
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 15 February 2021
Last Modified: 26 Oct 2021 01:38
URI: http://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/138542

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