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Emissions performance of staged premixed and diffusion combustor concepts for an NH3/air flame with and without reactant humidification

Pugh, D., Valera-Medina, A., Bowen, P., Giles, A., Goktepe, B., Runyon, J., Morris, S., Hewlett, S. and Marsh, R. 2021. Emissions performance of staged premixed and diffusion combustor concepts for an NH3/air flame with and without reactant humidification. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 143 (5) , 051012. 10.1115/1.4049451

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Abstract

Renewably generated ammonia offers a form of carbon-free chemical energy storage to meet the differences between uncertain supply and fluctuating demand and has the potential to support future energy requirements. The storage/transportation characteristics of NH3 are favorable compared with H2; however, there are combustion research challenges to enhance fuel reactivity while reducing harmful emissions production. The purpose of this work was to evaluate different fuel delivery concepts for a representative gas turbine combustor. An experimental and numerical comparison was made between swirl-stabilized premixed and diffusion NH3–air flames at elevated inlet temperature (473 K). The exhaust NOx and NH3 emissions generated from each concept were quantified to optimize combustor performance. High-speed OH* and NH2* chemiluminescence was employed to characterize the change in flame topology with variation in fuel–air equivalence ratio, and the resultant influence on measured emission concentrations. Chemiluminescence intensities were shown to elucidate changes in sampled exhaust emissions, enabling detailed analysis of intermediate chemistry. A comparison was made between experimental data and kinetic simulations, demonstrating the sensitivity of NOx emissions to premixed fuel–air equivalence ratio. A comparison was also made between exclusive primary airflow, and the staged introduction of secondary air, to quantify the change in NOx production between each configuration and improve fuel burnout. Secondary air loadings were incrementally increased through the combustor. Finally, reactant humidification was employed as a secondary process for NOx reduction, having shown favorable performance with NH3–H2 mixtures, with the efficacy compared for both premixed and diffusion configurations.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Engineering
Publisher: American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ISSN: 0742-4795
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 2 July 2021
Date of Acceptance: 2 September 2020
Last Modified: 02 Jul 2021 10:38
URI: http://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/141779

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