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Clinical delineation, sex differences, and genotype-phenotype correlation in pathogenic KDM6A variants causing X-linked Kabuki syndrome type 2

Faundes, Víctor, Goh, Stephanie, Akilapa, Rhoda, Bezuidenhout, Heidre, Bjornsson, Hans T., Bradley, Lisa, Brady, Angela F., Brischoux-Boucher, Elise, Brunner, Han, Bulk, Saskia, Canham, Natalie, Cody, Declan, Dentici, Maria Lisa, Digilio, Maria Cristina, Elmslie, Frances, Fry, Andrew E., Gill, Harinder, Hurst, Jane, Johnson, Diana, Julia, Sophie, Lachlan, Katherine, Lebel, Robert Roger, Byler, Melissa, Gershon, Eric, Lemire, Edmond, Gnazzo, Maria, Lepri, Francesca Romana, Marchese, Antonia, McEntagart, Meriel, McGaughran, Julie, Mizuno, Seiji, Okamoto, Nobuhiko, Rieubland, Claudine, Rodgers, Jonathan, Sasaki, Erina, Scalais, Emmanuel, Scurr, Ingrid, Suri, Mohnish, van der Burgt, Ineke, Matsumoto, Naomichi, Miyake, Noriko, Benoit, Valérie, Lederer, Damien and Banka, Siddharth 2021. Clinical delineation, sex differences, and genotype-phenotype correlation in pathogenic KDM6A variants causing X-linked Kabuki syndrome type 2. Genetics in Medicine 23 (7) , 1202–1210. 10.1038/s41436-021-01119-8

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Abstract

Purpose The variant spectrum and the phenotype of X-linked Kabuki syndrome type 2 (KS2) are poorly understood. Methods Genetic and clinical details of new and published individuals with pathogenic KDM6A variants were compiled and analyzed. Results Sixty-one distinct pathogenic KDM6A variants (50 truncating, 11 missense) from 80 patients (34 males, 46 females) were identified. Missense variants clustered in the TRP 2, 3, 7 and Jmj-C domains. Truncating variants were significantly more likely to be de novo. Thirteen individuals had maternally inherited variants and one had a paternally inherited variant. Neonatal feeding difficulties, hypoglycemia, postnatal growth retardation, poor weight gain, motor delay, intellectual disability (ID), microcephaly, congenital heart anomalies, palate defects, renal malformations, strabismus, hearing loss, recurrent infections, hyperinsulinism, seizures, joint hypermobility, and gastroesophageal reflux were frequent clinical findings. Facial features of over a third of patients were not typical for KS. Males were significantly more likely to be born prematurely, have shorter stature, and severe developmental delay/ID. Conclusion We expand the KDM6A variant spectrum and delineate the KS2 phenotype. We demonstrate that the variability of the KS2 phenotypic depends on sex and the variant type. We also highlight the overlaps and differences between the phenotypes of KS2 and KS1.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Additional Information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Publisher: American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics
ISSN: 1098-3600
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 14 September 2021
Date of Acceptance: 3 February 2021
Last Modified: 15 Sep 2021 10:45
URI: http://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/144088

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