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Quantifying the hydrological implications of pre- and post-installation willowed engineered log jams in the Pennine Uplands, NW England

Norbury, Michael, Phillips, Hazel, Macdonald, Neil, Brown, David, Boothroyd, Richard, Wilson, Catherine, Quinn, Paul and Shaw, David 2021. Quantifying the hydrological implications of pre- and post-installation willowed engineered log jams in the Pennine Uplands, NW England. Journal of Hydrology 603 (Part C) , 126855. 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2021.126855
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Abstract

Nature Based Solutions (NBS), including Natural Flood Management (NFM) schemes are becoming an important component of many governmental and organisation responses to increases in flood and aridity risk. NFM structures may take multiple forms to slow, store, disconnect and filter distributed overland flow pathways within a catchment that coalesce to generate a flood-wave downstream and runoff rather than infiltrate groundwaters. To date few studies have conducted observations pre- and post-installation monitoring at river reach-scales, despite widespread and frequent installation, to investigate the efficacy of willowed engineered log jams (WELJs) interventions used in abating flood-flows, through backing-up flood-pulses with consequent reductions in downstream discharges. This paper examines the efficiency, before and after installation of five 1 metre high WELJs incorporating 1,000 Bay willow (Salix pentandra) saplings supporting the dead horizontal timber, across a total of 130 linear metres spanning the floodplain of a decommissioned reservoir. One rain gauge, two fixed point time-lapse wildlife cameras and three water level stations were installed: upstream-of; within, and downstream-of all WELJs. The findings demonstrate a substantial reduction is achieved for most events, with an average of 27.3% reduction in peak discharge being achieved post-installation. The time to peak is little impacted, however there is demonstrable evidence of a longer and higher recessional limb to the events. These findings quantify for the first time the role that WELJs can play in a move towards re-naturalisation of water level regimes, with lower peak water flows achieved, and waters released from the river-reach more slowly. Furthermore, baseflow during dry periods is also elevated by 27.1%, offering greater resilience to dry periods and droughts. Consequently, over the river-reach scale (0-130 m), WELJs play an important role in alleviating flood and drought risk through suppressing flood peaks and increasing baseflow during low flows; steps towards improved hydro-morphological quality overall.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Engineering
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0022-1694
Funders: Environment 525 Agency and Treasury Flood Defence Grant in Aid Funds, NPIF Placement with the Mersey Forest supporting the Engineering and Physical 523 Research Sciences Council Funding (EPSRC) PhD studentship to HP (EP/L015927/1 – 524 P90791D)
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 17 September 2021
Date of Acceptance: 18 August 2021
Last Modified: 21 Oct 2021 13:42
URI: http://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/144263

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