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A whole water catchment approach to investigating the origin and distribution of Cryptosporidium species

Robinson, G., Chalmers, R. M., Stapleton, C., Palmer, Stephen Royston, Watkins, J., Francis, C. and Kay, D. 2011. A whole water catchment approach to investigating the origin and distribution of Cryptosporidium species. Journal of Applied Microbiology 111 (3) , pp. 717-730. 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2011.05068.x

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Aims: Investigating the distribution and origin of Cryptosporidium species in a water catchment affected by destocking and restocking of livestock as a result of a foot and mouth disease epidemic. Methods and Results: Surface water, livestock and wildlife samples were screened for Cryptosporidium and oocysts characterised by sequencing SSU rRNA and COWP loci, and fragment analysis of ML1, ML2 and GP60 microsatellite loci. Oocyst concentrations in water samples (0–20Æ29 per 10 l) were related to rainfall events, amount of rainfall and topography. There was no detectable impact from catchment restocking. Cryptosporidium spp. found in water were indicative of livestock (Cryptosporidium andersoni and Cryptosporidium parvum) and wildlife (novel genotypes) sources. However, C. andersoni was not found in any animals sampled. Calf infections were age related; C. parvum was significantly more common in younger animals (<4 weeks old). Older calves shared Cryptosporidium bovis, Cryptosporidium ryanae and C. parvum. Wildlife shed C. parvum, Cryptosporidium ubiquitum, muskrat genotype II and deer genotype. Conclusions: Several factors affect the occurrence of Cryptosporidium within a catchment. In addition to farmed and wild animal hosts, topography and rainfall patterns are particularly important. Significance and Impact of the Study: These factors must be considered when undertaking risk-based water safety plans.

Item Type: Article
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Uncontrolled Keywords: catchment; Cryptosporidium; livestock; molecular characterisation; rainfall; water, wildlife
Publisher: John Wiley and Sons
ISSN: 1364-5072
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 03:47

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