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Expression and modification of keratins during terminal differentiation of mammalian epidermis

Bowden, Paul Edward, Stark, H.-J., Breitkreutz, D. and Fusenig, N. E. 1987. Expression and modification of keratins during terminal differentiation of mammalian epidermis. Current Topics in Developmental Biology 22 , pp. 35-68. 10.1016/S0070-2153(08)60098-8

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Abstract

This chapter summarizes the current and past studies on the expression and modification of keratins in relation to epidermal differentiation. Some of the molecular details that are collectively named “terminal differentiation” have been elucidated, but much work is still required to obtain a more complete understanding of keratinocyte cell and molecular biology. In particular, the chapter deals with two aspects of keratin modification that are integral to the process of epidermal differentiation—(1) the differentiation- related proteolysis that is concomitant with the formation of stratum corneum and (2) the post-translational phosphorylation of keratins in living epidermal cells. Keratins are major phosphoproteins of the keratinocyte and that the addition of several moles of phosphate per keratin molecule is the probable cause of charge heterogeneity. Keratins are not synthesized uniformly across the epidermis but are sequentially expressed. The details of keratin expression and modification appear to vary with anatomical site and human epidermis from both the palmar–plantar regions and foreskin are atypical in this respect. Keratin expression and modification in cultured keratinocytes, which are not the equivalent of but derived from epidermal basal cells, differ considerably from the situation in vivo. However, when the same keratins are synthesized, their properties are identical in both situations. The alterations, therefore, reflect a change in the control of keratin gene expression, a topic that is receiving much attention currently. The chapter also shows some preliminary data on hair and nail keratins that are sometimes termed as “hard” keratins.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > RL Dermatology
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0070-2153
Last Modified: 12 Jun 2019 02:23
URI: http://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/57355

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