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Antioxidant defences of Spironucleus vortens: Glutathione is the major non-protein thiol

Williams, Catrin Ffion, Yarlett, N., Aon, M. A. and Lloyd, David 2014. Antioxidant defences of Spironucleus vortens: Glutathione is the major non-protein thiol. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 196 (1) , pp. 45-52. 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2014.07.010

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The aerotolerant hydrogenosome-containing piscine diplomonad, Spironucleus vortens, is able to withstand high fluctuations in O2 tensions during its life cycle. In the current study, we further investigated the O2 scavenging and antioxidant defence mechanisms which facilitate the survival of S. vortens under such oxidizing conditions. Closed O2 electrode measurements revealed that the S. vortens ATCC 50386 strain was more O2 tolerant than a freshly isolated S. vortens intestinal strain (Sv1). In contrast to the related human diplomonad, Giardia intestinalis, RP-HPLC revealed the major non-protein thiols of S. vortens to be glutathione (GSH, 776 nmol/107 cells) with cysteine and H2S as minor peaks. Furthermore, antioxidant proteins of S. vortens were assayed enzymatically and revealed that S. vortens possesses superoxide dismutase and NADH oxidase (883 and 37.5 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively), but like G. intestinalis, lacks catalase and peroxidase activities. Autofluorescence of NAD(P)H and FAD alongside the fluorescence of the GSH-adduct in monochlorobimane-treated live organisms allowed the monitoring of redox balances before and after treatment with inhibitors, metronidazole and auranofin. H2O2 was emitted into the exterior of S. vortens at a rate of 2.85 pmol/min/106 cells. Metronidazole and auranofin led to depletion of S. vortens intracellular NAD(P)H pools and an increase in H2O2 release with concomitant oxidation of GSH, respectively. Garlic-derived compounds completely inhibited O2 consumption by S. vortens (ajoene oil), or significantly depleted the intracellular GSH pool of the organism (allyl alcohol and DADS). Hence, antioxidant defence mechanisms of S. vortens may provide novel targets for parasite chemotherapy.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Subjects: Q Science > QR Microbiology
Uncontrolled Keywords: Protozoan; Metronidazole; Garlic; Reactive oxygen species; Superoxide dism
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0166-6851
Date of Acceptance: 28 July 2014
Last Modified: 20 Feb 2019 14:14

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