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Civics and citizenship education in Malaysia: The voice of micro policy enactors

Mahmood, Haniza 2014. Civics and citizenship education in Malaysia: The voice of micro policy enactors. PhD Thesis, Cardiff University.
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Abstract

The main objective of this study is to provide an understanding of the way Civic and Citizenship Education, as intended at the macro level is translated, implemented and enacted at the micro level. Moreover, it also seeks to understand the contestation and challenges of secondary school teachers as policy implementers at the micro level in transferring the new curriculum policy into teaching and learning practice. Adopting a qualitative research approach, empirical evidence and in-depth information were gathered through document analysis, interviews, questionnaire, lesson observation and field notes. The document analysis showed that there were similarities between Western and Malaysian concepts of citizenship education in that Malaysia’s Civic and Citizenship Education was concerned with developing good personal and patriotic citizens. This differed from England’s citizenship education that promoted political literacy and active participation in democratic society. Despite in the official document, Civic and Citizenship Education seems to be strongly classified and strongly framed (Bernstein, 1975; 1971), at the school level, this subject is weakly classified and weakly framed. Indeed, a closer examination in each school visited showed that the ‘battle’ (Goodson, 1998 : 45) between this subject and other academic subjects continue. The analysis also illustrated that the enactment of Civic and Citizenship Education was mediated, not only by school students’ ethnic population, but also by school contexts that existed in each school. This also led to the gap between teachers’ perception of citizenship and citizenship education with their teaching practices. Thus, this study demonstrated that the process of translating, implementing and enacting policy at the school level is not a direct process (Ball, 2006) as there are various factors that could mediate the way a policy is implemented and enacted at the micro level (Ball et al., 2012; Braun et al. 2011a).

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Status: Unpublished
Schools: Social Sciences (Includes Criminology and Education)
Subjects: D History General and Old World > DS Asia
H Social Sciences > H Social Sciences (General)
Funders: Malaysian Embassy
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 March 2016
Last Modified: 19 Mar 2016 23:52
URI: http://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/69576

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