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Interaction of plant growth regulators and reactive oxygen species to regulate petal senescence in wallflowers (Erysimum linifolium)

Salleh, Faezah Mohd, Mariotti, Lorenzo, Spadafora, Natasha D, Price, Anna M, Picciarelli, Piero, Wagstaff, Carol, Lombardi, Lara and Rogers, Hilary Joan 2016. Interaction of plant growth regulators and reactive oxygen species to regulate petal senescence in wallflowers (Erysimum linifolium). BMC Plant Biology 16 , 77. 10.1186/s12870-016-0766-8

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Abstract

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Interaction of plant growth regulators and reactive oxygen species to regulate petal senescence in wallflowers ( Erysimum linifolium ) Faezah Mohd Salleh 1,2 , Lorenzo Mariotti 4 , Natasha D. Spadafora 1 , Anna M. Price 1,3 , Piero Picciarelli 5 , Carol Wagstaff 6 , Lara Lombardi 4 and Hilary Rogers 1* Abstract Background: In many species floral senescence is coordinated by ethylene. Endogenous levels rise, and exogenous application accelerates senescence. Furthermore, floral senescence is often associated with increased reactive oxygen species, and is delayed by exogenously applied cytokinin. However, how these processes are linked remains largely unresolved. Erysimum linifolium (wallflower) provides an excellent model for understanding these interactions due to its easily staged flowers and close taxonomic relationship to Arabidopsis . This has facilitated microarray analysis of gene expression during petal senescence and provided gene markers for following the effects of treatments on different regulatory pathways. Results: In detached Erysimum linifolium (wallflower) flowers ethylene production peaks in open flowers. Furthermore senescence is delayed by treatments with the ethylene signalling inhibitor silver thiosulphate, and accelerated with ethylene released by 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid. Both treatments with exogenous cytokinin, or 6-methyl purine (which is an inhibitor of cytokinin oxidase), delay petal senescence. However, treatment with cytok inin also increases ethylene biosynthesis. Despite the similar effects on senescence, tran script abundance of gene markers is affected differentially by the treatments. A significant rise in transcript abundance of WLS73 (a putative aminocyclopropa necarboxylate oxidase) was abolished by cytokinin or 6-meth yl purine treatments. In contrast, WFSAG12 transcript (a senescence marker) continued to accumulate significantly, albeit at a reduced rate . Silver thiosulphate suppre ssed the increase in transcript abundance both of WFSAG12 and WLS73 . Activity of reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes changed during senescence. Treatments that increased cytokinin levels, or i nhibited ethylene action, reduced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, although auxin levels rose with sene scence, treatments that delayed early senescence did not affect transcript abundance of WPS46 , an auxin-induced gene. Conclusions: A model for the interaction between cytokinins, ethylene, reactive oxygen species and auxin in the regulation of floral senescence in wallflowers is proposed. The combined increase in ethylene and reduction in cytokinin triggers the initiation of senescence and these two plant growth regulators directly or indirectly result in increased reactive oxygen species levels. A fall in conjugated auxin and/or the total auxin pool eventually triggers abscission.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Subjects: Q Science > QK Botany
Uncontrolled Keywords: Auxin, Cytokinin, Ethylene, Floral senescence, Reactive oxygen species, Transcript abundance, Wallflowers
Publisher: Biomed Central
ISSN: 1471-2229
Funders: BBSRC
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 5 April 2016
Date of Acceptance: 7 March 2016
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 08:58
URI: http://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/88716

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