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Role of Bacillus anthracis spore structures in macrophage cytokine responses

Basu, Subhendu, Kang, Tae Jin, Chen, Wilbur H., Fenton, Matthew J., Baillie, Les, Hibbs, Steve and Cross, Alan S. 2007. Role of Bacillus anthracis spore structures in macrophage cytokine responses. Infection and Immunity 75 (5) , pp. 2351-2358. 10.1128/IAI.01982-06

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The innate immune response of macrophages (M{phi}) to spores, the environmentally acquired form of Bacillus anthracis, is poorly characterized. We therefore examined the early M{phi} cytokine response to B. anthracis spores, before germination. M{phi} were exposed to bacilli and spores of Sterne strain 34F2 and its congenic nongerminating mutant ({Delta}gerH), and cytokine expression was measured by real-time PCR and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The exosporium spore layer was retained (exo+) or removed by sonication (exo–). Spores consistently induced a strong cytokine response, with the exo– spores eliciting a two- to threefold-higher response than exo+ spores. The threshold for interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) production by wild-type M{phi} was significantly lower than that required for tumor necrosis factor alpha expression. Cytokine production was largely dependent on MyD88, suggesting Toll-like receptor involvement; however, the expression of beta interferon in MyD88–/– M{phi} suggests involvement of a MyD88-independent pathway. We conclude that (i) the B. anthracis spore is not immunologically inert, (ii) the exosporium masks epitopes recognized by the M{phi}, (iii) the M{phi} cytokine response to B. anthracis involves multiple pattern recognition receptors and signaling pathways, and (iv) compared to other cytokines, IL-1ß is expressed at a lower spore concentration.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Pharmacy
ISSN: 00199567
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 01:37

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