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Use and safety of azithromycin in neonates: a systematic review

Smith, Coral, Egunsola, Oluwaseun, Choonara, Imti, Kotecha, Sailesh ORCID:, Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne and Sammons, Helen 2015. Use and safety of azithromycin in neonates: a systematic review. BMJ Open 5 (12) , e008194. 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008194

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Objectives To identify the use and adverse drug reactions associated with azithromycin in neonates. Setting Databases MEDLINE (1948–August 2015), EMBASE (1980–August 2015) and Pubmed (August 2015) were searched for studies on azithromycin in neonates. Participants All studies involving neonates (<28 days old) who have received at least a single dose of azithromycin for which safety was evaluated. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was adverse event (AE) associated with use of azithromycin. Use of azithromycin in neonates was the secondary outcome. Results A total of 11 articles involving 473 neonates were identified. 371 AEs were reported. Adverse events were mainly respiratory (358/1000 neonate), neurological (273/1000 neonates) and gastrointestinal (196/1000 neonates) in origin. Azithromycin significantly reduced the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature neonates (RR=0.83, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.98, p=0.02). There was no significant difference in the incidence of elevated liver enzymes between the azithromycin and placebo group (p=0.76). There were four cases of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS). Conclusions Azithromycin significantly reduces the risk of BPD in preterm neonates. The relationship between azithromycin and IHPS requires further investigation.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group
ISSN: 2044-6055
Date of Acceptance: 2 November 2015
Last Modified: 02 Nov 2022 11:28

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