Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

Advances in electro- and sono-microreactors for chemical synthesis

Hardwick, Tomas and Ahmed, Nisar ORCID: 2018. Advances in electro- and sono-microreactors for chemical synthesis. RSC Advances 8 (39) , pp. 22233-22249. 10.1039/C8RA03406K

[thumbnail of c8ra03406k.pdf]
PDF - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (1MB) | Preview


The anatomy of electrochemical flow microreactors is important to safely perform chemical reactions in order to obtain pure and high yielding substances in a controlled and precise way that excludes the use of supporting electrolytes. Flow microreactors are advantageous in handling unstable intermediates compared to batch techniques and have efficient heat/mass transfer. Electrode nature (cathode and anode) and their available exposed surface area to the reaction mixture, parameters of the spacer, flow rate and direction greatly affects the efficiency of the electrochemical reactor. Solid formation during reactions may result in a blockage and consequently decrease the overall yield, thus limiting the use of microreactors in the field of electrosynthesis. This problem could certainly be overcome by application of ultrasound to break the solids for consistent flow. In this review, we discuss in detail the aforementioned issues, the advances in microreactor technology for chemical synthesis, with possible application of sonochemistry to deal with solid formations. Various examples of flow methods for electrosynthesis through microreactors have been explained in this review, which would definitely help to meet future demands for efficient synthesis and production of various pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Chemistry
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISSN: 2046-2069
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 20 June 2018
Date of Acceptance: 13 June 2018
Last Modified: 05 May 2023 12:29

Citation Data

Cited 22 times in Scopus. View in Scopus. Powered By Scopus® Data

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics