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Adaptive control and dynamic demand response for the stabilization of grid frequency

Muhssin, Mazin 2018. Adaptive control and dynamic demand response for the stabilization of grid frequency. PhD Thesis, Cardiff University.
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Over the past few years, there has been a marked increase in the output from wind and solar generation in many countries. High levels of distributed generation provide variable energy and the increasing share of converter-connected plant results in a reduction in system inertia. Consequently, the rate of change of frequency, especially during and after severe faults, becomes more rapid. This thesis describes the use of heat pumps and fridges to provide ancillary services of frequency response so that to continuously balance the supply with demand. A decentralized digital controller namely: Adaptive DeadBeat (ADB) is designed to improve the frequency behaviour in an interconnected power system during and after faults. Simulation results show that the ADB controller can be considered as a contribution of digital control application to improve the frequency behaviour in an interconnected power system with reduced system inertia. The thermal performance of domestic buildings using heat pumps, and of fridges using thermostat temperature control is modelled. A dynamic frequency control (DFC) algorithm is developed to control the power consumption of the load in response to the grid frequency without affecting the overall performance of the load. Then, the dynamic frequency control algorithm is applied to a population of over 10 million aggregated units that represent the availability of load to provide frequency response. A dynamic relationship between the temperature and pre-defined trigger frequencies is given to ensure smooth and gradual load switching. A simulation is undertaken by connecting the controllable heat pumps to the reduced dynamic model of the Great Britain power system. Following a loss of 1,800 MW of generation, it is shown that the DFC reduces 1,000 MW of heat pumps demand and hence the frequency deviation is maintained within acceptable limits. In addition, a population of heat pumps and fridges are connected to the electrodynamic master model of the GB power system that is at present used by the ii GB transmission system operator, National Grid plc. Results show that the aggregated domestic heat pumps and fridges controlled by the DFC algorithm can participate in the Firm Frequency Response (FFR) service and provide rapid frequency response to the GB power system, mimicking the behaviour of the frequency-sensitive generators.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Date Type: Completion
Status: Unpublished
Schools: Engineering
Uncontrolled Keywords: Adaptive control; Deadbeat controller; Dynamic demand response; Demand side response aggregation; National Grid dynamic model; Great Britain power system; Smart grids.
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 23 July 2018
Last Modified: 14 Apr 2021 11:52

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