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Load management of electric vehicles and heat pumps in emerging electricity system

Oliyide, Rilwan 2019. Load management of electric vehicles and heat pumps in emerging electricity system. PhD Thesis, Cardiff University.
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The uptake of electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs) have been identified as means of cutting down on emissions in the transport and domestic sectors. Increasing uptake of EVs and HPs must be managed to avoid unintended consequences on the power system and the environment. This thesis describes an investigation of the management of the load demand of EVs and HPs such that they would help achieve the CO2 emission reduction targets in the most economic manner. Policies encouraging uptake of EVs and HPs must be guided by facts. Therefore, an algorithm for estimating reduction of emissions due to EVs replacing internal combustion engine (ICE) cars was developed and tested on data from the United Kingdom (UK). Results showed that a point could be reached when further uptake of EVs might be counterproductive if the declining average gram of CO2 emitted per kilometre driven of ICE cars was not matched by the increasing use of low-carbon sources for the generation of electricity. As the uptake of EVs increases, the impacts of their charging requirements and charging patterns on the generating infrastructure in terms of capacity, scheduling of resources, grid emission intensity and emission abatement cost must be understood. To this effect, a dispatch model based on correlation between system load demand and capacity factors of generating units was developed and tested on data from the UK power system with 50% uptake of EVs under two charging patterns. The low voltage (LV) distribution networks are the hosts of EVs and HPs, therefore, their impacts on the LV distribution networks was investigated through a powerflow simulation study of a typical urban LV distribution network in the UK hosting future uptake number of EVs and HPs up to 2050 using GridLAB-D. The operating model of domestic variable speed Air-Source HP for the provision of both hot water and space heating was developed and used in the powerflow study. Results showed that overloading of transformers was likely to be the first restricting factor to further uptake of EVs and HPs. Hence, distribution transformers, being the most expensive components of the LV distribution network need to be optimally utilised to cost-effectively support high xiv uptake of EVs and HPs. In this regard, an adaptive thermal loading method of distribution transformers was developed. The adaptive thermal loading method was combined with a proposed load management technique in an optimisation objective function. This was tested on a typical urban LV distribution network in the UK characterised by significant uptake of EVs and HPs when carrying the future load demand of the area up to 2050. Results proved that the transformer of a typical LV distribution network area could support high uptake of EVs and HPs beyond 2050.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Date Type: Submission
Status: Unpublished
Schools: Engineering
Uncontrolled Keywords: Electric Vehicles; Heat Pumps; Load Management; EV Charge Controller; GridLAB-D; GHG emissions.
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 8 May 2019
Last Modified: 08 May 2019 14:31

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