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Localised energy systems in the Nigerian power network

Fasina, Emmanuel 2019. Localised energy systems in the Nigerian power network. PhD Thesis, Cardiff University.
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In most of the African countries, particularly Nigeria, the fossil fuel based centralised generation is outdated, lacks proper maintenance and it is unreliable. Access to the transmission grid is limited, and it is costly to upgrade the existing power grid. The localised energy system is an alternative option to address these important challenges. The thesis analysed the impact of localised energy systems (LES) in the UK power system with respect to benefits, opportunities, and limitations with the aim to transfer the knowledge obtained in the study to the Nigerian power network. The dynamic model of the UK generic distribution network, with different types of LES (residential, commercial and mixtures of these customers), was developed to study the impacts of LES on the steady state voltage, network losses and transformer loading. The results show that the integration of LES improved the steady state voltage by 2.75%, distribution losses are reduced by 15% and the transformer loading is reduced by 22%. Similar studies were carried out on a section of the Nigerian network, the Ekiti State 33kV network, over 24 hours for both rainy and dry seasons, with and without LES. The results show an improvement in network voltage by 2.5% and a reduction in the network losses by 19.26%. For different levels of solar generation penetration, it is found that for 30% PV penetration, the use of storage is required during peak demand in the rainy season (when the solar irradiation is low) to mitigate the generation shortage. Replacing conventional generation by solar power will reduce the overall inertia of the power system. The impact on frequency control of high PV penetration was studied using the Nigerian two-area hydrothermal systems model developed in MATLAB Simulink. The results show a frequency regulation problem at 30% PV penetration. The stored kinetic energy in the existing conventional generators could not absorb electricity output from PV system causing the frequency deviation beyond the safe operation of the system. A flywheel storage system was proposed in this research as a solution to counterbalance the intermittency of the PV generation and to damp out the frequency deviations. The localised energy systems, if implemented in Ekiti State, will provide annual savings of US$454,096 from losses reduction and yield about 46,360MWh electricity annually, which is about 30% of Ekiti State annual electricity consumption. Localised energy systems used renewable energy technologies and therefore would contribute towards carbon emission reduction target.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Status: Unpublished
Schools: Engineering
Uncontrolled Keywords: Localised energy system; Distribution generation; PV generation; Frequency regulations; Flywheel Storage System; Distribution system.
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 29 May 2019
Last Modified: 04 Aug 2022 01:44

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