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Chapter 4 - What do earthquake magnitudes mean? Example of the Kaikōura, New Zealand, 2016 Event

Fagereng, Åke ORCID: 2019. Chapter 4 - What do earthquake magnitudes mean? Example of the Kaikōura, New Zealand, 2016 Event. Billi, A. and Fagereng, A., eds. Problems and Solutions in Structural Geology and Tectonics, Vol. 5. Developments in Structural Geology and Tectonics, Elsevier, pp. 57-64. (10.1016/B978-0-12-814048-2.00004-1)

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Earthquakes occur on faults, representing a clear link between seismology and structural geology. An opportunity therefore arises to apply seismological-scaling relationships toward understanding the connection between the structural geology of faults and the potential earthquakes that have or may occur on these faults. Here, the example of the Kaikōura 2016 moment magnitude 7.8 earthquake is used to consider how earthquake magnitude depends on rupture area. In this particular earthquake, numerous faults failed in a single event, creating a larger earthquake than was expected even in a country where active faults are well characterized. This example is therefore an excellent opportunity to show students how a natural event can change scientific thought, as well as showing how relatively simple arithmetic can be employed to better understand earthquakes and the faults that host them. This chapter keeps the mathematics simple yet sufficient for students to find their own problems to study, such as local faults or new and interesting earthquakes yet to occur.

Item Type: Book Section
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Earth and Environmental Sciences
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 2542-9000
Last Modified: 04 Nov 2022 12:26

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