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Mineralogical characterization of rejuvenated magmatism at Burton Guyot, Louisville Seamount trail

Dorais, Michael J. and Buchs, David M. ORCID: 2019. Mineralogical characterization of rejuvenated magmatism at Burton Guyot, Louisville Seamount trail. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 174 (8) , -. 10.1007/s00410-019-1604-4

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Volcaniclastic sequences drilled during IODP Expedition 330 on top of Burton Guyot preserve a unique record of rejuvenated magmatic activity along the Louisville Seamount trail. Geochemical analysis of clinopyroxenes in primary volcaniclastic deposits of this rejuvenated phase allows the reconstruction of magmatic evolution from the shield to post-erosional phases of a Louisville seamount, and to compare this evolution to that of Hawaiian volcanoes. Our results reveal the occurrence of three main types of clinopyroxenes in the rejuvenated volcaniclastic deposits at Burton Guyot, with a Na (and Al)-poor phenocrystic clinopyroxene and two types of Na-rich clinopyroxenes from disaggregated ultramafic xenoliths. The rejuvenated Na-poor phenocrysts have the same compositional range as clinopyroxenes associated with the shield stage of the volcano, indicating an overlap in shield and rejuvenated magma compositions. The dominant type of Na-rich clinopyroxene (Type 1) is very similar to clinopyroxenes in Hawaiian pyroxenitic xenoliths thought to represent high pressure cumulates. Their relatively low Mg/(Mg + Fe), Cr, and Sc contents, similar trace element abundances and high Al(vi):Al(iv) to Hawaiian cumulates indicates that they too are cumulates. This contrasts with lower Al(vi):Al(iv) of the Na-poor phenocrysts that crystallized between 6–7 kbars and 1150–1200 °C. Type 2 clinopyroxenes are Mg-rich, and have major and trace element compositions very similar to clinopyroxenes in Hawaiian peridotites. These clinopyroxenes are interpreted as fragments of mantle xenoliths. They show intermediate amounts of incompatible element depletion, between more enriched Hawaiian peridotites and strongly depleted abyssal peridotites. Some grains exhibit the effects of mantle metasomatism, having spoon-shaped, chondrite-normalized REE patterns like those of Hawaiian peridotite xenoliths. The occurrence of disaggregated pyroxenitic cumulates and metasomatized mantle xenoliths in rejuvenated magmas of both Burton Guyot and Hawaiian islands suggests that the plumbing system of these volcanic systems share significant similarities. However, consistently with previous geochemical studies of the Louisville seamounts, geochemical consistency of shield and rejuvenated clinopyroxenes at Burton Guyot show that this volcano experienced similar alkaline magmatism from shield to rejuvenated stages. This is an important difference with the evolution of Hawaiian volcanoes that includes a dominantly tholeiitic shield stages and alkaline post-shield and rejuvenated stages, which suggests that the model of Hawaiian island formation may not be fully applicable to Louisville seamounts.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Earth and Environmental Sciences
Publisher: Springer Verlag
ISSN: 0010-7999
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 9 August 2019
Date of Acceptance: 15 July 2019
Last Modified: 07 Nov 2023 01:57

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