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A connection between magma chamber processes and eruptive styles revealed at Nisyros-Yali volcano (Greece)

Popa, R?zvan-Gabriel, Bachmann, Olivier, Ellis, Ben S., Degruyter, Wim ORCID:, Tollan, Peter and Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos 2019. A connection between magma chamber processes and eruptive styles revealed at Nisyros-Yali volcano (Greece). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 387 , 106666. 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2019.106666

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Arc volcanoes generally emit water-rich, high-viscosity silicic magmas, which are prone to erupt explosively. However, effusive behavior is a common occurrence despite the high-H2O, high viscosity conditions. The contrasting shift from effusive to explosive behavior (and vice-versa) at any individual volcano raises the question on what controls eruptive style. Permeability development in conduits allows magma to outgas and is clearly a key factor. However, an important question is whether magma reservoir processes can also have an influence on eruptive styles. The answer could have direct impact on predicting eruptive behavior. Hence, we explore this potential connection by analyzing nine alternating effusive and explosive silicic deposits that were emplaced during distinct eruptions at the active Nisyros-Yali volcanic center. The lavas and pyroclastic deposits are compositionally similar. This indicates a negligible influence of the bulk rock composition on different eruptive styles. The crystal contents vary between units, without any clear correlation with eruptive style (from nearly aphyric to ~45 vol% crystals). Mineral textures and chemistry do show variations between effusive and explosive eruptions, with a larger proportion of resorbed plagioclase and, in most cases, more evolved amphiboles present in the lava flows. Mineral thermo-barometry and hygrometry show that the storage zones of magmas generating effusive eruptions evolved towards colder and more water-rich conditions (710–790 °C; 5.6–6.5 wt% H2O) than their explosive counterparts (815–850 °C; 4.2–4.6 wt% H2O). At storage pressures of 1.5–2 kbar, relevant for Nisyros-Yali, the volatile saturation level is reached at >5 wt% H2O. Therefore, it is likely that the magmas reached water-saturation before generating effusive eruptions, and were undersaturated before explosive events. We hypothesize that the presence of exsolved volatiles in the subvolcanic reservoir can enhance the outgassing potential of the magma during conduit ascent. Hence, the rhyolitic effusive-explosive transitions can be influenced by the pre-eruptive exsolved versus dissolved state of the volatiles in the magma chamber. This can lead to the less explosive eruptions for the most water-rich reservoir conditions.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Earth and Environmental Sciences
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0377-0273
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 18 September 2019
Date of Acceptance: 27 September 2019
Last Modified: 07 Nov 2023 02:24

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