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Standardised self-management kits for children with type 1 diabetes: pragmatic randomised trial of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness

Noyes, Jane, Allen, Davina ORCID:, Carter, Cynthia ORCID:, Edwards, Deborah, Edwards, Rhiannon T., Russell, Daphne, Russell, Ian T., Spencer, Llinos H., Sylvestre, Yvonne, Whitaker, Rhiannon, Yeo, Seow Tien and Gregory, John W. ORCID: 2020. Standardised self-management kits for children with type 1 diabetes: pragmatic randomised trial of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. BMJ Open 10 (3) , e032163. 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-032163

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Objective To estimate the effectiveness of standardised self-management kits for children with type 1 diabetes. Design Pragmatic trial with randomisation ratio of two intervention: one control. Qualitative process evaluation. Setting 11 diabetes clinics in England and Wales. Participants Between February 2010 and August 2011, we validly randomised 308 children aged 6–18 years; 201 received the intervention. Intervention We designed kits to empower children to achieve glycaemic control, notably by recording blood glucose and titrating insulin. The comparator was usual treatment. Outcome measures at 3 and 6 months Primary: Diabetes Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). Secondary: HbA1c; General PedsQL; EQ-5D; healthcare resource use. Results Of the five Diabetes PedsQL dimensions, Worry showed adjusted scores significantly favouring self-management kits at 3 months (mean child-reported difference =+5.87; Standard error[SE]=2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]) from +1.57 to +10.18; p=0.008); but Treatment Adherence significantly favoured controls at 6 months (mean child-reported difference=−4.68; SE=1.74; 95%CI from −8.10 to −1.25; p=0.008). Intervention children reported significantly worse changes between 3 and 6 months on four of the five Diabetes PedsQL dimensions and on the total score (mean difference=−3.20; SE=1.33; 95% CI from −5.73 to −0.67; p=0.020). There was no evidence of change in HbA1c; only 18% of participants in each group achieved recommended levels at 6 months. No serious adverse reactions attributable to the intervention or its absence were reported. Use of kits was poor. Few children or parents associated blood glucose readings with better glycaemic control. The kits, costing £185, alienated many children and parents. Conclusions Standardised kits showed no evidence of benefit, inhibited diabetes self-management and increased worry. Future research should study relationships between children and professionals, and seek new methods of helping children and parents to manage diabetes.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Journalism, Media and Culture
Healthcare Sciences
Publisher: BMJ
ISSN: 2044-6055
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 29 January 2020
Date of Acceptance: 9 January 2020
Last Modified: 18 May 2023 02:17

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