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Evaluation of Cypholophus macrocephalus sap as a treatment for infected cutaneous ulcers in Papua New Guinea

Moses, Rachael L., Fang, Rui, Dally, Jordanna, Briggs, Marie, Lundy, Fionnuala T., Kiapranis, Robert, Moseley, Ryan ORCID: and Prescott, Thomas A. K. 2020. Evaluation of Cypholophus macrocephalus sap as a treatment for infected cutaneous ulcers in Papua New Guinea. Fitoterapia 143 , 104554. 10.1016/j.fitote.2020.104554

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Cypholophus macrocephalus sap is used to treat bacterially infected cutaneous leg ulcers in Papua New Guinea. High resolution LC-MS analysis of the sap revealed it to be rich in sulphated flavonoids. We assessed the effects of the sap on the differentiation and pro-inflammatory anti-microbial responses of M1 macrophages using IL-6 and TNF-α ELISAs and found significant increases in M1 macrophage IL-6 expression with concentrations as low as 243 ng/ml sap. Neutrophil IL-6 and TNF-α expression was also significantly increased but to a lesser degree. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 1, 2, 8 and 9 which are known to contribute to the toxic nature of wound exudates were inhibited by the sap at 24 μg/ml. The sap was tested with several bacterial species known to colonize cutaneous ulcers in Papua New Guinea but proved not to be active. Cypholophus sap stimulates pro-inflammatory, anti-microbial M1 macrophage and neutrophil responses at very low concentrations, whilst also inhibiting MMPs. The combination of an enhanced innate immune response and inhibition of MMPs in ulcer exudate, may contribute to the eradication of bacteria and healing of these infected ulcers. The sap concentrations used in these assays are readily achievable in an in vivo context.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Dentistry
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0367-326X
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 March 2020
Date of Acceptance: 11 March 2020
Last Modified: 07 Nov 2023 06:53

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