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Prosthetic joint infection and aseptic loosening: could liposomes be the solution?

Beamish, R., Ayre, W. N. ORCID: and Evans, S. 2019. Prosthetic joint infection and aseptic loosening: could liposomes be the solution? Presented at: International Society for Technology in Arthroplasty (ISTA) 31st Annual Congress, London, England, 10-13 October 2018. Orthopaedic Proceedings. , vol.101-B (Supple) British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery, 10.1302/1358-992X.2019.5.111

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Objectives Investigate the incorporation of an antibiotic in bone cement using liposomes (a drug delivery system) with the potential to promote osseointegration at the bone cement interface whilst maintaining antibiotic elution, anti-microbiological efficacy and cement mechanical properties. Prosthetic joint infection and aseptic loosening are associated with significant morbidity. Antibiotic loaded bone cement is commonly used and successfully reduces infection rates; however, there is increasing resistance to the commonly used gentamicin. Previous studies have shown gentamicin incorporated into bone cement using liposomes can maintain the cement's mechanical properties and improve antibiotic elution. The phospholipid phosphatidyl-l-serine has been postulated to encourage surface osteoblast attachment and in a liposome could improve osseointegration, thereby reducing aseptic loosening. Preliminary clinical isolate testing showed excellent antimicrobial action with amoxicillin therefore the study aims were to test amoxicillin incorporated into bone cement using liposomes containing phosphatidyl-l-serine in terms of antibiotic elution, microbiological profile and mechanical properties. Methods Amoxicillin was encapsulated within 100nm liposomes containing phosphatidyl-L-serine and added to PMMA bone cement (Palacos R (Heraeus Medical, Newbury, UK)). Mechanical testing was performed according to Acrylic Cement standards (ISO BS 5833:2002). Elution testing was carried out along with microbiological testing utilising clinical isolates. Results Liposomal encapsulated amoxicillin PMMA bone cement exceeded minimum ISO BS 5833:2002 standards, had better elution at 12.9% when compared with plain amoxicillin (p=0.036 at 48 hours) or commercial gentamicin cement (Palacos R+G, Heraeus Medical, Newbury, UK – previous studies showed 6% elution over the same time period). Amoxicillin showed superior antimicrobial action when compared with gentamicin of the same concentration. However, liposomal encapsulated amoxicillin in solution and liposomal encapsulated amoxicillin in PMMA were both less effective than free amoxicillin in bacterial growth inhibition. The liposomal amoxicillin also seemed to decrease the cement setting time. Conclusions Phosphatidyl-l-serine containing liposomes maintained the cement's mechanical properties and seemed to have better antibiotic elution, however, had less effective antibacterial action than plain amoxicillin. This difference in antibacterial action requires further investigation along with investigation of osteoblast attachment to phosphatidyl-l-serine containing liposomes within cement. Plain amoxicillin, for those not penicillin allergic, seems to be a credible alternative to gentamicin for incorporation in PMMA bone cement. It has shown superior antibacterial action, which may improve infection rates, whilst maintaining the cement's mechanical properties.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Engineering
Publisher: British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery
ISSN: 1358-992X
Date of Acceptance: 10 October 2018
Last Modified: 06 May 2023 02:33

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