Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

An affordable nearly-zero-energy townhouse prototype for China's future low-carbon housing

Zhang, Kenan 2020. An affordable nearly-zero-energy townhouse prototype for China's future low-carbon housing. PhD Thesis, Cardiff University.
Item availability restricted.

[thumbnail of KZ - FInal Thesis.pdf PAGES REMOVED.pdf]
PDF - Accepted Post-Print Version
Download (17MB) | Preview
[thumbnail of Cardiff University Electronic Publication Form] PDF (Cardiff University Electronic Publication Form) - Supplemental Material
Restricted to Repository staff only

Download (1MB)


As part of the 11th Five Year Plan on Energy Development (2006-2010), China once set up a 65% target for reducing the energy consumption of residential and public buildings by 2020. Then in 2016, the State Council of China directly referenced nearly-zero-energy buildings and PV micro-generation on the roof as the critical solutions to enhance building energy conservations and carbon emissions reductions. Most recently, in January 2019, China’s Technical Standard for Nearly Zero Energy Building (GB/T51350-2019) has been launched for implementation. All these policies aim to promote low-carbon buildings in China. However, in China’s housing sector, affordability has been a profound obstacle to implement low-carbon technologies. China’s high-rise high-density housing strategy also technically impairs the deployment of cost-effective micro renewable generations. Therefore, the main challenges not only lie with the cost of low-carbon technologies but the fundamental reform of housing strategy to enable building integrated renewable generation. This research aims to provide a new approachfor future low-carbon housing in China. It proposes an affordable nearly-zero-energy townhouse prototypein suburban area, which integrated affordable and replicable energy demand, energy storage and renewable energy supply solutions.This research has two main aspects of contribution to the existing literature. Firstly, on the theory side, this research fills the research gap on the low-rise low-carbon housing in China. It not only formulated the terminology and prototype of the affordable nearly-zero-energy townhouse but also provides a conceptual design framework to guide the design and integration process. Secondly, on the practical side, this research provides evidence for the large scale rollout of the approach by carrying out a real project case study. The case study covers the whole design, construction and commissioning process. It validated the applicability of this prototype at the regional and project level. It also evaluated the achieved indoor thermal and energy performances of the constructed house against its costs. This researchprovedthat the affordable nearly-zero-energy townhouse prototype couldapplyin a wide range of cities’ suburban areain China, and it suits forthe majority of climate zones. The embedded integration strategy of low-carbon technologies and the proposed design process are implementable in practice. The parameters defined in the national level prototype are competent to guide the development of project-level baseline building. The benchmarks set in the national level prototype are also capable of promoting affordable nearly-zero-energy performances with a reasonable costin real practice.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Date Type: Submission
Status: Unpublished
Schools: Architecture
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 27 August 2020
Last Modified: 24 Aug 2021 01:30

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics