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Tissue remodeling macrophages morphologically dominate at the interface of polypropylene surgical meshes in the human abdomen

Dievernich, A., Achenbach, P., Davies, L. and Klinge, U. 2020. Tissue remodeling macrophages morphologically dominate at the interface of polypropylene surgical meshes in the human abdomen. Hernia 24 , pp. 1175-1189. 10.1007/s10029-020-02315-2

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Background Mesh implants are widely used to reinforce the abdominal wall, although the inevitable inflammatory foreign body reaction (FBR) at the interface leads to complications. Macrophages are suspected to regulate the subsequent scar formation, but it is still unclear whether adequate fibrous scar formation with collagen deposition depends mainly on the presence of M1 or M2 macrophages. Methods This study investigated the FBR to seven human polypropylene meshes, which were removed after a median incorporation time of 1 year due to the primary complaint of recurrence. Using immunofluorescence, the FBR was examined in six regional zones with increasing distance from the mesh fibers up to 350 µm, based on the cell densities, macrophage M1 (CD86) and M2 (CD163, CD206) phenotypes, deposition of collagen-I and -III, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -8 as indicator of collagen degradation. Results All mesh–tissue complexes demonstrated a decrease in cell density and macrophages with distance to the mesh fibers. Overall, about 60% of the macrophages presented an M2 phenotype, whereas only 6% an M1 phenotype. Over 70% of macrophages showed co-expression with collagen-I or -III and over 50% with MMP-2. Conclusions The chronic FBR to polypropylene meshes is associated with an M2 macrophage response, which is accompanied by collagen deposition and MMP-2 expression. These findings challenge the idea that mainly M1 macrophages are related to inflammation and highlights that iatrogenic attempts to polarize these cells towards the M2 phenotype may not be a solution to ameliorate the long-term foreign body reaction.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Publisher: Springer Verlag (Germany)
ISSN: 1265-4906
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 22 October 2020
Date of Acceptance: 23 September 2020
Last Modified: 03 May 2023 22:47

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