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Genome-wide characterization and expression of two-component system genes in cytokinin-regulated gall formation in Zizania latifolia

He, Lili, Zhang, Feng, Wu, Xiaozhen, Hu, Yanmei, Dong, LiLi, Dewitte, Walter ORCID: and Wen, Bo 2020. Genome-wide characterization and expression of two-component system genes in cytokinin-regulated gall formation in Zizania latifolia. Plants 9 (11) , 1409. 10.3390/plants9111409

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The thickening of Zizania latifolia shoots, referred to as gall formation, depends on infection with the fungal endophyte Ustilago esculenta. The swollen and juicy shoots are a popular vegetable in Asia. A key role for cytokinin action in this process was postulated. Here, trans-zeatin stimulated swelling in fungi-infected Z. latifolia. A two-component system (TCS) linked cytokinin binding to receptors with transcriptional regulation in the nucleus and played important roles in diverse biological processes. We characterized 69 TCS genes encoding for 25 histidine kinase/histidine-kinase-like (HK(L)) (21 HKs and 4 HKLs), 8 histidine phosphotransfer proteins (HP) (5 authentic and 3 pseudo), and 36 response regulators (RR; 14 type A, 14 type B, 2 type C, and 6 pseudo) in the genome of Z. latifolia. These TCS genes have a close phylogenetic relationship with their rice counterparts. Nineteen duplicated TCS gene pairs were found and the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations indicated that a strong purifying selection acted on these duplicated genes, leading to few mutations during evolution. Finally, ZlCHK1, ZlRRA5, ZIRRA9, ZlRRA10, ZlPRR1, and ZlPHYA expression was associated with gall formation. Among them, ARR5, ARR9, and ZlPHYA are quickly induced by trans-zeatin, suggesting a role for cytokinin signaling in shoot swelling of Z. latifolia. Keywords: two-component system; Z. latifolia; shoot swelling; cytokinin signals

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Additional Information: This article is an open access  article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution  (CC BY) license (
Publisher: MDPI
ISSN: 2223-7747
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 26 October 2020
Date of Acceptance: 20 October 2020
Last Modified: 06 May 2023 05:07

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