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Neurogenesis after traumatic brain injury - The complex role of HMGB1 and neuroinflammation

Manivannan, S., Marei, O., Elalfy, O. and Zaben, M. 2021. Neurogenesis after traumatic brain injury - The complex role of HMGB1 and neuroinflammation. Neuropharmacology 183 , 108400. 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2020.108400

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Introduction Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is amongst the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite evidence of neurogenesis post-TBI, survival and integration of newborn neurons remains impaired. High Mobility Group Box protein 1 (HMGB1) is an ‘alarmin’ released hyper-acutely following TBI and implicated in hosting the neuro-inflammatory response to injury. It is also instrumental in mediating neurogenesis under physiological conditions. Given its dual role in mediating neuro-inflammation and neurogenesis, it serves as a promising putative target for therapeutic modulation. In this review, we discuss neurogenesis post-TBI, neuro-pharmacological aspects of HMGB1, and its potential as a therapeutic target. Methods PubMed database was searched with varying combinations of the following search terms: HMGB1, isoforms, neurogenesis, traumatic brain injury, Toll-like receptor (TLR), receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE). Results Several in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate evidence of neurogenesis post-injury. The HMGB1-RAGE axis mediates neurogenesis throughout development, whilst interaction with TLR-4 promotes the innate immune response. Studies in the context of injury demonstrate that these receptor effects are not mutually exclusive. Despite recognition of different HMGB1 isoforms based on redox/acetylation status, effects on neurogenesis post-injury remain unexplored. Recent animal in vivo studies examining HMGB1 antagonism post-TBI demonstrate predominantly positive results, but specific effects on neurogenesis and longer-term outcomes remain unclear. Conclusion HMGB1 is a promising therapeutic target but its effects on neurogenesis post-TBI remains unclear. Given the failure of several pharmacological strategies to improve outcomes following TBI, accurate delineation of HMGB1 signalling pathways and effects on post-injury neurogenesis are vital.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics (CNGG)
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0028-3908
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 5 January 2021
Date of Acceptance: 9 November 2020
Last Modified: 13 May 2022 01:59

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