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Predictors of treatment resistant schizophrenia: a systematic review of prospective observational studies

Smart, S. E. ORCID:, Kepinska, A. P., Murray, R. M. and MacCabe, J. H. 2021. Predictors of treatment resistant schizophrenia: a systematic review of prospective observational studies. Psychological Medicine 51 (1) , pp. 44-53. 10.1017/S0033291719002083

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Treatment-resistant schizophrenia, affecting approximately 20–30% of patients with schizophrenia, has a high burden both for patients and healthcare services. There is a need to identify treatment resistance earlier in the course of the illness, in order that effective treatment, such as clozapine, can be offered promptly. We conducted a systemic literature review of prospective longitudinal studies with the aim of identifying predictors of treatment-resistant schizophrenia from the first episode. From the 545 results screened, we identified 12 published studies where data at the first episode was used to predict treatment resistance. Younger age of onset was the most consistent predictor of treatment resistance. We discuss the gaps in the literature and how future prediction models can identify predictors of treatment response more robustly.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Additional Information: This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISSN: 0033-2917
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 14 January 2021
Date of Acceptance: 25 July 2019
Last Modified: 05 May 2023 03:39

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