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Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in Zucker rats induces bacterial and systemic metabolic changes independent of caloric restriction-induced weight loss

Seyfried, Florian, Phetcharaburanin, Jutarop, Glymenaki, Maria, Nordbeck, Arno, Hankir, Mohammed, Nicholson, Jeremy K., Holmes, Elaine, Marchesi, Julian R. ORCID: and Li, Jia V. 2021. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in Zucker rats induces bacterial and systemic metabolic changes independent of caloric restriction-induced weight loss. Gut Microbes 13 (1) , pp. 1-20. 10.1080/19490976.2021.1875108

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Mechanisms of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate weight loss-independent bacterial and metabolic changes, as well as the absorption of bacterial metabolites and bile acids through the hepatic portal system following RYGB surgery. Three groups of obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats were included: RYGB (n = 11), sham surgery and body weight matched with RYGB (Sham-BWM, n = 5), and sham surgery fed ad libitum (Sham-obese, n = 5). Urine and feces were collected at multiple time points, with portal vein and peripheral blood obtained at the end of the study. Metabolic phenotyping approaches and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used to determine the biochemical and bacterial composition of the samples, respectively. RYGB surgery-induced distinct metabolic and bacterial disturbances, which were independent of weight loss through caloric restriction. RYGB resulted in lower absorption of phenylalanine and choline, and higher urinary concentrations of host-bacterial co-metabolites (e.g., phenylacetylglycine, indoxyl sulfate), together with higher fecal trimethylamine, suggesting enhanced bacterial aromatic amino acid and choline metabolism. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were lower in feces and portal vein blood from RYGB group compared to Sham-BWM, accompanied with lower abundances of Lactobacillaceae, and Ruminococcaceae known to contain SCFA producers, indicating reduced bacterial fiber fermentation. Fecal γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) was found in higher concentrations in RYGB than that in Sham groups and could play a role in the metabolic benefits associated with RYGB surgery. While no significant difference in urinary BA excretion, RYGB lowered both portal vein and circulating BA compared to Sham groups. These findings provide a valuable resource for how dynamic, multi-systems changes impact on overall metabolic health, and may provide potential therapeutic targets for developing downstream non-surgical treatment for metabolic disease.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Additional Information: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (
Publisher: Taylor and Francis/Landes Bioscience
ISSN: 1949-0976
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 15 February 2021
Date of Acceptance: 29 December 2020
Last Modified: 03 May 2023 20:37

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