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The contribution of Xp22.31 gene dosage to Turner and Klinefelter syndromes and sex-biased phenotypes

Davies, W. ORCID: 2021. The contribution of Xp22.31 gene dosage to Turner and Klinefelter syndromes and sex-biased phenotypes. European Journal of Medical Genetics 64 (4) , 104169. 10.1016/j.ejmg.2021.104169

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Turner syndrome (TS) is a rare developmental condition in females caused by complete, or partial, loss of the second sex chromosome; it is associated with a number of phenotypes including short stature, ovarian failure and infertility, as well as neurobehavioural and cognitive manifestations. In contrast, Klinefelter syndrome (KS) arises from an excess of X chromosome material in males (typical karyotype is 47,XXY); like TS, KS is associated with infertility and hormonal imbalance, and behavioural/neurocognitive differences from gonadal sex-matched counterparts. Lower dosage of genes that escape X-inactivation may partially explain TS phenotypes, whilst overdosage of these genes may contribute towards KS-related symptoms. Here, I discuss new findings from individuals with deletions or duplications limited to Xp22.31 (a region escaping X-inactivation), and consider the extent to which altered gene dosage within this small interval (and of the steroid sulfatase (STS) gene in particular) may influence the phenotypic profiles of TS and KS. The expression of X-escapees can be higher in female than male tissues; I conclude by considering how lower Xp22.31 gene dosage in males may increase their likelihood of exhibiting particular phenotypes relative to females. Understanding the genetic contribution to specific phenotypes in rare disorders such as TS and KS, and to more common sex-biased phenotypes, will be important for developing more effective, and more personalised, therapeutic approaches.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Psychology
Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute (NMHRI)
MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics (CNGG)
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 1769-7212
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 17 February 2021
Date of Acceptance: 16 February 2021
Last Modified: 07 Nov 2023 02:34

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