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Integrated modelling and analysis of buildings and community energy systems

Kanteh Sakiliba, Sambu 2019. Integrated modelling and analysis of buildings and community energy systems. MPhil Thesis, Cardiff University.
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Abstract

The Business, Energy, and Industrial Strategy (BEIS), the United Kingdom (UK) government has concluded that greenhouse gas emissions should be brought to net zero by 2050[1]. To ensure completion of this goal, the government has started to use low carbon technologies (LCT) such heat pumps (ASHPs) and rooftop solar photovoltaic systems in domestic dwellings. However, this has a potential impact on low voltage electricity networks (e.g. voltage drops), and communities that also consider renewable energy technologies [2]. In this context, the presented work in this thesis evaluates the external effects of Zero Energy Bill Homes (ZEBHs) in a low voltage (LV) distribution grid and a community which produces hydrogen (H2) through an electrolyser that works with wind and solar power. The H2 produced dispenses for fuel cell electrical vehicles (FCEVs). The framework at both, network and community level are achieved through the development of two modelling environments as part of the Building Control Virtual Test Bed interface. The first modelling environment, MATLAB/Simulink platform, allowed LV grid and hydrogen energy simulation which integrated all aspects of the community between buildings. The second one, EnergyPlus software, provided the building energy modelling and simulation, including occupant behaviour as a boundary condition for variables such as appliance and lighting usage, and domestic hot water tap flows. There is a significant interest from academics, industry and policy makers in different parts of the world to identify and realise the opportunities of integrating buildings and community energy systems while avoiding any undesirable impacts. Hence, the aim of this research is to develop a model for the integrated modelling and analysis of buildings and community energy systems. As part of this thesis, three key components of the model were developed: i) The energy modelling, calibration for validation purposes, simulation, and technoeconomic analysis of a set of ZEBHs for evaluating their energy performance and zeroenergy bill status. The selected dwellings were involved in the District of Future (DoF) European Union project [3] that had strongly objectives in achieving zero energy bills. Therefore, the comparison outputs between the ZEBHs pointed out the significance of occupancy elements as a factor that can influence thermal and electrical demand. The economic assessment exerted that the zero-energy bill concept would be impractical if the UK government subsidies are withdrawn. ii) The development of an integrated building and electricity platform that allowed the link of ZEBHs and LV networks to exploit ASHP load shifting when there were voltage drops below the UK statutory limits. The results quantified the ZEBHs energy demand flexibility that can be provided to the LV network iii) Development of an optimisation method to manage the energy demand flexibility of ZEBHs for a UK-based community’s Hydrogen Energy System (HES) in which the ZEBHs ASHP load (connected to a Low Voltage Distribution Network) are shifted to maximize the production of H2 for FCEVs. It was found that when the heat pump loads were shifted it maximised the hydrogen production by 1.73% on a winter week.

Item Type: Thesis (MPhil)
Date Type: Completion
Status: Unpublished
Schools: Engineering
Uncontrolled Keywords: Building Energy Modelling; Zero Energy Bill Homes; Integrated Community Energy Systems; Solar Photovoltaic Thermal Assisted Heat Pump: Hydrogen Energy System; Fuel Cell Electrical Vehicle; Air Source Heat Pumps; Solar PV/T Panels.
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 23 February 2021
Last Modified: 30 Oct 2021 01:19
URI: https://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/138714

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