Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

Clinical phenotype of severe and moderate haemophilia: who should receive prophylaxis and what is the target trough level?

Collins, Peter W. ORCID:, Obaji, Samya G., Roberts, Heledd, Gorsani, Deepan and Rayment, Rachel 2021. Clinical phenotype of severe and moderate haemophilia: who should receive prophylaxis and what is the target trough level? Haemophilia 27 (2) , pp. 192-198. 10.1111/hae.14201

[thumbnail of hae.14201.pdf]
PDF - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial.

Download (527kB) | Preview


Introduction One of the most often stated tenets of haemophilia care is that prophylaxis converts a person from a severe to a moderate phenotype. In this review, we argue that this is not an accurate assumption and that people on prophylaxis predominantly have factor VIII/IX levels in the mild range. Moderate haemophilia and prophylaxis People with moderate haemophilia, who are treating with on‐demand regimens, experience joint bleeds and often develop significant arthropathy. This is especially true for people with a baseline level of 1‒3 IU/dl, as first reported 55 years ago, and confirmed in more recent studies. Evidence is emerging suggesting that people with severe haemophilia who are using prophylaxis have better musculoskeletal outcomes than people with moderate haemophilia treated episodically. Trough levels The debate around the optimum trough level whilst on prophylaxis is ongoing. It is not appropriate to extrapolate information about baseline levels to recommendations about target trough levels on prophylaxis because these are different situations. Studies are emerging that support higher target trough levels than previously used, but in spite of this, the aim of achieving zero bleeds remains elusive with both factor replacement and non‐replacement therapies. Conclusions We recommend that people with moderate haemophilia, especially those with a baseline of 1–3 IU/dl, should be offered prophylaxis based on the same criteria as people with severe haemophilia. Trough levels should be maintained above 3 IU/dl or higher if a level of 3 IU/dl does not control breakthrough bleeding and prophylaxis should be tailored to the bleeding phenotype. This advice is in line with recently published guidelines from the World Federation of Haemophilia and the UK Haemophilia Centre Doctors’ Organisation.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Additional Information: This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial License
Publisher: Wiley
ISSN: 1351-8216
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 3 March 2021
Date of Acceptance: 26 October 2020
Last Modified: 03 May 2023 07:37

Citation Data

Cited 6 times in Scopus. View in Scopus. Powered By Scopus® Data

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics