Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

Keratoconus: cross-linking the window of the eye

Hayes, Sally ORCID:, Morgan, Siân R. and Meek, Keith M. ORCID: 2021. Keratoconus: cross-linking the window of the eye. Therapeutic Advances in Rare Disease 2 , pp. 1-14. 10.1177/26330040211003573

[thumbnail of HayesMorganMeek2021.pdf]
PDF - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (366kB) | Preview


Keratoconus is a condition in which the cornea progressively thins and weakens, leading to severe, irregular astigmatism and a significant reduction in quality of life. Although the precise cause of keratoconus is still not known, biochemical and structural studies indicate that overactive enzymes within the cornea break down the constituent proteins (collagen and proteoglycans) and cause the tissue to weaken. As the disease develops, collagen fibres slip past each other and are redistributed across the cornea, causing it to change shape. In recent years, it was discovered that the photochemical induction of cross-links within the corneal extracellular matrix, through the use of riboflavin and ultraviolet (UVA) light, could increase the strength and enzymatic resistance of the tissue and thereby halt keratoconus progression. Worldwide acceptance and use of riboflavin/UVA corneal cross-linking therapy for halting keratoconus progression has increased rapidly, in accordance with the growing body of evidence supporting its long-term effectiveness. This review focusses on the inception of riboflavin/UVA corneal cross-linking therapy for keratoconus, its clinical effectiveness and the latest scientific advances aimed at reducing patient treatment time, improving patient comfort and increasing patient eligibility for treatment.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Optometry and Vision Sciences
Additional Information: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (
ISSN: 2633-0040
Funders: MRC
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 13 April 2021
Date of Acceptance: 25 February 2021
Last Modified: 04 May 2023 16:52

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics