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The changing incidence of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in Wales: Effect of gender and season at diagnosis and birth

Harvey, J.N., Hibbs, R., Maguire, M.J., O'Connell, H. and Gregory, J.W. 2021. The changing incidence of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in Wales: Effect of gender and season at diagnosis and birth. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 175 , 108739. 10.1016/j.diabres.2021.108739

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Abstract

Aims Determinants of the changing incidence of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes remain uncertain. We determined the recent time-trend of type 1 diabetes incidence in Wales and explored the role of vitamin D by evaluating the influence of season both at diagnosis and at birth. Methods Data from all Welsh paediatric units 1990–2019, and from primary care to determine ascertainment. Results Log-linear modelling indicated a non-linear secular trend in incidence with peak and subsequent decline. The peak occurred around June 2010: 31∙3 cases/year/100,000 children aged < 15y. It occurred earlier in children younger at diagnosis and earlier in boys. There were more cases in males aged <2y and >12y but more in females aged 9–10 y. More were diagnosed in winter. Also, children born in winter had less risk of future diabetes. Conclusions The risk of developing type 1 diabetes before age 15y in Wales is no longer increasing. The data on season are consistent with a preventative role for vitamin D both during pregnancy and later childhood. Metereological Office data shows increasing hours of sunlight since 1980 likely to increase vitamin D levels with less diabetes. Additional dietary supplementation with vitamin D might further reduce the incidence of type 1 diabetes.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0168-8227
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 19 May 2021
Date of Acceptance: 22 March 2021
Last Modified: 20 May 2021 13:15
URI: https://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/141453

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