Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

The Early Social Cognition Inventory (ESCI): an examination of its psychometric properties from birth to 47 months

Hoicka, Elena, Soy-Telli, Burcu, Prouten, Eloise, Leckie, George, Browne, William J., Nurmsoo, Erika and Gattis, Merideth ORCID: 2022. The Early Social Cognition Inventory (ESCI): an examination of its psychometric properties from birth to 47 months. Behavior Research Methods 54 , pp. 1200-1226. 10.3758/s13428-021-01628-z

[thumbnail of Hoicka2021_Article_TheEarlySocialCognitionInvento.pdf] PDF - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (1MB)


Social cognition refers to a broad range of cognitive processes and skills that allow individuals to interact with and understand others, including a variety of skills from infancy through preschool and beyond, e.g., joint attention, imitation, and belief understanding. However, no measures examine socio-cognitive development from birth through preschool. Current test batteries and parent-report measures focus either on infancy, or toddlerhood through preschool (and beyond). We report six studies in which we developed and tested a new 21-item parent-report measure of social cognition targeting 0–47 months: the Early Social Cognition Inventory (ESCI). Study 1 (N = 295) revealed the ESCI has excellent internal reliability, and a two-factor structure capturing social cognition and age. Study 2 (N = 605) also showed excellent internal reliability and confirmed the two-factor structure. Study 3 (N = 84) found a medium correlation between the ESCI and a researcher-administered social cognition task battery. Study 4 (N = 46) found strong 1-month test–retest reliability. Study 5 found longitudinal stability (6 months: N = 140; 12 months: N = 39), and inter-observer reliability between parents (N = 36) was good, and children’s scores increased significantly over 6 and 12 months. Study 6 showed the ESCI was internally reliable within countries (Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, United States, Trinidad and Tobago); parent ethnicity; parent education; and age groups from 4–39 months. ESCI scores positively correlated with household income (UK); children with siblings had higher scores; and Australian parents reported lower scores than American, British, and Canadian parents.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Psychology
Additional Information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Publisher: Springer
ISSN: 1554-351X
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 24 May 2021
Date of Acceptance: 19 May 2021
Last Modified: 17 Nov 2023 19:08

Citation Data

Cited 2 times in Scopus. View in Scopus. Powered By Scopus® Data

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics