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The CNS/PNS extracellular matrix provides instructive guidance cues to neural cells and neuroregulatory proteins in neural development and repair

Melrose, James, Hayes, Anthony J. and Bix, Gregory 2021. The CNS/PNS extracellular matrix provides instructive guidance cues to neural cells and neuroregulatory proteins in neural development and repair. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22 (11) , 5583. 10.3390/ijms22115583

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Abstract

Background. The extracellular matrix of the PNS/CNS is unusual in that it is dominated by glycosaminoglycans, especially hyaluronan, whose space filling and hydrating properties make essential contributions to the functional properties of this tissue. Hyaluronan has a relatively simple structure but its space-filling properties ensure micro-compartments are maintained in the brain ultrastructure, ensuring ionic niches and gradients are maintained for optimal cellular function. Hyaluronan has cell-instructive, anti-inflammatory properties and forms macro-molecular aggregates with the lectican CS-proteoglycans, forming dense protective perineuronal net structures that provide neural and synaptic plasticity and support cognitive learning. Aims. To highlight the central nervous system/peripheral nervous system (CNS/PNS) and its diverse extracellular and cell-associated proteoglycans that have cell-instructive properties regulating neural repair processes and functional recovery through interactions with cell adhesive molecules, receptors and neuroregulatory proteins. Despite a general lack of stabilising fibrillar collagenous and elastic structures in the CNS/PNS, a sophisticated dynamic extracellular matrix is nevertheless important in tissue form and function. Conclusions. This review provides examples of the sophistication of the CNS/PNS extracellular matrix, showing how it maintains homeostasis and regulates neural repair and regeneration.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Additional Information: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Publisher: MDPI
ISSN: 1422-0067
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 15 June 2021
Date of Acceptance: 17 May 2021
Last Modified: 16 Jun 2021 10:00
URI: https://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/141920

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