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Differential recognition of HIV-stimulated IL-1? and IL-18 secretion through NLR and NAIP signalling in monocyte-derived macrophages

Triantafilou, Kathy ORCID:, Ward, Christopher J. K., Czubala, Magdalena ORCID:, Ferris, Robert G., Koppe, Emma, Haffner, Curt, Piguet, Vincent, Patel, Vipulkumar K., Amrine-Madsen, Heather, Modis, Louise K., Masters, Seth L. and Triantafilou, Martha ORCID: 2021. Differential recognition of HIV-stimulated IL-1? and IL-18 secretion through NLR and NAIP signalling in monocyte-derived macrophages. PLoS Pathogens 17 (4) , e1009417. 10.1371/journal.ppat.1009417

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Macrophages are important drivers of pathogenesis and progression to AIDS in HIV infection. The virus in the later phases of the infection is often predominantly macrophage-tropic and this tropism contributes to a chronic inflammatory and immune activation state that is observed in HIV patients. Pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system are the key molecules that recognise HIV and mount the inflammatory responses in macrophages. The innate immune response against HIV-1 is potent and elicits caspase-1-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine production of IL-1β and IL-18. Although, NLRP3 has been reported as an inflammasome sensor dictating this response little is known about the pattern recognition receptors that trigger the “priming” signal for inflammasome activation, the NLRs involved or the HIV components that trigger the response. Using a combination of siRNA knockdowns in monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs) of different TLRs and NLRs as well as chemical inhibition, it was demonstrated that HIV Vpu could trigger inflammasome activation via TLR4/NLRP3 leading to IL-1β/IL-18 secretion. The priming signal is triggered via TLR4, whereas the activation signal is triggered by direct effects on Kv1.3 channels, causing K+ efflux. In contrast, HIV gp41 could trigger IL-18 production via NAIP/NLRC4, independently of priming, as a one-step inflammasome activation. NAIP binds directly to the cytoplasmic tail of HIV envelope protein gp41 and represents the first non-bacterial ligand for the NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasome. These divergent pathways represent novel targets to resolve specific inflammatory pathologies associated with HIV-1 infection in macrophages.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Publisher: Public Library of Science
ISSN: 1553-7374
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 17 June 2021
Date of Acceptance: 22 February 2021
Last Modified: 08 May 2023 21:43

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