Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

Current status of websites offering information to traumatic brain injury patients and caregivers: time for reform?

Manivannan, Susruta, Baskaran, Ravanta, Fisher, Jack, Tasker, Imogen and Zaben, Malik 2021. Current status of websites offering information to traumatic brain injury patients and caregivers: time for reform? World Neurosurgery 153 , e419-e427. 10.1016/j.wneu.2021.06.140

[thumbnail of TBI online info v4.pdf] PDF - Accepted Post-Print Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

Download (219kB)


Objective Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a global public health problem, causing long-term burden to patients and caregivers. Patients and their families often resort to seeking online information regarding TBI management whilst awaiting formal healthcare consultations. Although this information is accessible and immediately available, little is known about the quality of online resources. We evaluated the accessibility, relevance, and readability of information regarding TBI from major online search engines. Methods TBI-related search terms were entered into two online search engines (GoogleTM, YahooTM), and the first 30 websites per search were assessed for eligibility. Quality (DISCERN score, JAMA Benchmark score) and readability (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES)) were assessed. Associations between search ranking, quality, and readability were evaluated. Results 202 websites were evaluated with mean DISCERN score 36.5±9.9/80, signifying poor global quality, and mean JAMA Benchmark score 2.8±1.1/4. The majority required 9 – 12 years of education (113/202; 55.9%) according to FKGL and categorised as ‘Difficult’ on FRES (94/202; 46.5%). Website quality was not associated with search ranking or readability. Conclusions There is a paucity of high-quality online resources for TBI patients. Herein, we highlight: (i) the importance of guidance from healthcare professionals regarding online-information seeking; (ii) recommendations for the most useful online resources available.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics (CNGG)
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 1878-8750
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 6 July 2021
Date of Acceptance: 28 June 2021
Last Modified: 05 Jul 2022 21:17

Citation Data

Cited 1 time in Scopus. View in Scopus. Powered By Scopus® Data

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics