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Analyzing hydration differences in cocrystal polymorphs: high-resolution X-ray investigation of caffeine-glutaric acid cocrystals

Hawkins, Bryson A., Han, Jaeyeon, Du, Jonathan J., Lai, Felcia, Stanton, Stephen A., Divakarla, Shravan S., Groundwater, Paul W., Platts, James A. and Hibbs, David E. 2021. Analyzing hydration differences in cocrystal polymorphs: high-resolution X-ray investigation of caffeine-glutaric acid cocrystals. Crystal Growth and Design 21 (8) , pp. 4456-4467. 10.1021/acs.cgd.1c00358

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Abstract

Two polymorphic forms of caffeine (CAF)–glutaric acid (GLU) cocrystals have been studied via high-resolution X-ray crystallography and Bader’s quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). For both the monoclinic, 1, and triclinic, 2, systems the experimental charge density distributions of the 1:1 ratio of CAF and GLU polymorphs have been determined and compared. Previous studies have determined that 1 is less stable than 2, in relative humidity (RH) testing. A topological analysis of the electron density distribution (EDD) revealed little difference between the two polymorph internal systems. The packing densities (0.76 vs 0.74) and lattice energies (−101.1 vs −107.1 kJ mol–1) of 1 and 2, respectively, are nearly equivalent, implying that the differences in hygroscopicity between the two polymorphs are not due to crystal lattice porosity or stability. A topological analysis of the number and strength of hydrogen bonds for 1 and 2 revealed nine hydrogen bonds in both polymorphs. “Classical” (O–H···X) hydrogen bonds were similarly present in both polymorphs, stabilizing the cocrystals. However, the sum of the stability produced from the “nonclassical” (C–H···X) bonds is higher in 2: −27.6 vs −38.2 kJ mol–1 for 1 and 2, respectively. One of the nine hydrogen bonds in 1 and 2 varies from the others, caused by the torsional rotation of the aliphatic carbon chain in GLU. This bond is critical for packing stabilization, creating a parallelogram-like packing arrangement in 2 in comparison to ribboning in 1. A Hirshfeld surface analysis found that the percentages of O–H···X hydrogen bonds were nearly identical in 1 and 2 (23.9% vs 22.1%); however, the H···H contacts were higher in 2 (61.4% vs 65.8% for 1 and 2, respectively), suggesting that more hydrogen-based contacts require competitive displacement by water in the hydration of 2 in comparison to 1. Additionally, a stabilizing aromatic cycle stack between CAF molecules is present in 2 due to the varied parallelogram packing arrangement, which was absent in 1; this provided ∼11.3 kJ mol–1 of stability to the system of 2. The solid-state entropies and molecular dipole moments (MDMs) of 1 and 2 supported the relative stability of the individual polymorphs, with 1 having a higher entropy and dipole moment in comparison to 2 (123.2 vs 112.8 J K–1 mol–1 and 7.45 and 4.93 D for 1 and 2, respectively), implying that it has the potential to hydrate more rapidly. These findings are in good agreement with previous experimental RH stability studies, giving further insight into the information gained from thermally averaged ground-state crystal electron density data.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Chemistry
Publisher: American Chemical Society
ISSN: 1528-7483
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 22 July 2021
Date of Acceptance: 1 July 2021
Last Modified: 19 Jul 2022 06:40
URI: https://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/142773

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