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Unconventional T cells and kidney disease

Kaminski, Hannah, Couzi, Lionel and Eberl, Matthias 2021. Unconventional T cells and kidney disease. Nature Reviews Nephrology 17 , pp. 795-813. 10.1038/s41581-021-00466-8

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Abstract

Unconventional T cells are a diverse and underappreciated group of relatively rare lymphocytes that are distinct from conventional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and that mainly recognize antigens in the absence of classical restriction through the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). These non-MHC-restricted T cells include mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells, γδ T cells and other, often poorly defined, subsets. Depending on the physiological context, unconventional T cells may assume either protective or pathogenic roles in a range of inflammatory and autoimmune responses in the kidney. Accordingly, experimental models and clinical studies have revealed that certain unconventional T cells are potential therapeutic targets, as well as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. The responsiveness of human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells and MAIT cells to many microbial pathogens, for example, has implications for early diagnosis, risk stratification and targeted treatment of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis. The expansion of non-Vγ9Vδ2 γδ T cells during cytomegalovirus infection and their contribution to viral clearance suggest that these cells can be harnessed for immune monitoring and adoptive immunotherapy in kidney transplant recipients. In addition, populations of NKT, MAIT or γδ T cells are involved in the immunopathology of IgA nephropathy and in models of glomerulonephritis, ischaemia–reperfusion injury and kidney transplantation.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Systems Immunity Research Institute (SIURI)
Publisher: Nature Research
ISSN: 1759-5061
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 21 June 2022
Date of Acceptance: 13 July 2021
Last Modified: 22 Jun 2022 05:38
URI: https://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/143704

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