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Surface and subsurface damage caused by bullet impacts into sandstone

Campbell, Oliver, Blenkinsop, Tom ORCID:, Gilbert, Oscar and Mol, Lisa 2021. Surface and subsurface damage caused by bullet impacts into sandstone. Geosciences 11 (9) , 395. 10.3390/geosciences11090395

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The shift of armed conflicts to more urbanised environments has increased the risk to cultural heritage sites. Small arms impacts are ubiquitous in these circumstances, yet the effects and mechanisms of damage caused are not well known. A sandstone target was shot under controlled conditions to investigate surface and subsurface damage. A 3D model of the damaged block, created by structure from motion photogrammetry, shows that internal fracturing was at least as extensive as the visible surface fractures. Backscatter electron imaging of the damaged surface shows a shift from intragranular fracturing and grain size reduction at <5 mm from the impact point to primarily circumgranular fracturing and grain ‘plucking’ at 20 mm from the impact point. Internal fracture intensity decreased with distance from the centre of the crater. Volumes around the impact point are therefore at greater risk of subsequent weathering deterioration, but significant damage extends to the periphery of the target, rendering whole blocks vulnerable. The surface crater, despite being one of the most conspicuous aspects of conflict damage, has many times less area than internal and surface fractures.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Earth and Environmental Sciences
Additional Information: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Publisher: MDPI
ISSN: 2076-3263
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 20 September 2021
Date of Acceptance: 13 September 2021
Last Modified: 14 May 2023 22:19

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